produce food. These institutions in turn are used to support and justify elite ownership of the regions
productive resources, especially improved agricultural land.
26 The subsistence economy is geared to meeting household needs if key subsistence variabl
55 Population kept low because of low caloric intake, constant movement which kept womens fertility
rate low, seasonal cycles in food, limited storage capacities, and infanticide. Periodic disaster and famines
also kept population low.
56 Foragers are cos
1. group. The leaders do not necessarily control the resources. Leaders range from headmen to Big
Men. They are often polygynous.
2. Sanctity invoking, honoring, and placating ancestral spirits who stand for the local group and its
subgroups. Ceremonies s
Warfare between groups discouraged. Although homicides are frequent, conflicts are seen as disruptive
and are discouraged. (75)
Even more so than the Shoshone, an informal organization above the family level is needed to handle
problems of subsistence ris
100 The above point shows that there are limits on the potential of tropical rain forests for agricultural
intensification. This is a subsistence failure.
100 Even though the Machiguenga had plenty of cultivable land, the population did not explode. The
115 They alternate between foraging for reindeer and fish and settling near pasture depending on the
116 No organized warfare recorded.
116 The problems faced by the Nganasan are the extreme scarcity and unpredictability of resources in
Ceremonies called the fandango consisted of many families. The celebration was for recreational
pleasures, but also allowed for the gathering of pooled labor from many families, sharing of information
about where food was, development of friendships throu
138 For foragers: families form larger groups to intensify production (e.g. come together for a rabbit
drive) or to host ceremonies and build relationship (so that if one families storage fails, they can ask
another family who built a relationship with th
to illustrate that exchange (which they see as ethnocentric) is only one of a few other means of
economics. Individuals trade not because they are self-interested and rational but because it is the rules
of their environment (ie. legal rules and social no
Johnson & Earle
Observations from Exams: Will ask to provide examples and case studies, will ask for graphs, applying
economic models to explain the society, what are the exogenous and endogenous variables, what are
the constraints, minimization and maxim
ECON 354COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS
Acephalous Local Group: The subsistence economy in most cases focuses on domesticated species. They
may have a head man. Community security critically important because of endemic warfare.
Ceremonialism important for publicly defining groups and their int