CRIM 220 MIDTERM NOTES
Criminal justice professionals are both consumers as well as producers of research.
Organized around both measurement and interpretation of crime.
Experiential reality: the things we know as real
Crim 230 Lecture 6
Quasi-Experimental & Non-Experimental Designs
Midterm- based on text, 50 MC, no Qs on other peoples names, experiments, etc; content only
No questions on that ask a), b), c or d. etc/
Paper: follow instructions/ com
Criminological Theory and Research
Definition/Components/Role of theory in crime research
Research proposal (short paper)
Three Aspects of scientific theory
Data collection (observation)
Data analysis (patterns in what
Ethical Issues in Criminological Research
-We still dont know what causes crime.
Text @a or @b to:604-256-8110
@a I WOULD conduct the SPE
@b I would NOT conduct the SPE
Ethics and Research
What is being ethical in research?
Conceptualization, Operationalization, and
Process by which we specify what we mean by a concept.
The process takes three steps
1. Identify a concept
2. Determine its dimensions
3. Formulate a conceptual definition
To target, investigate, prosecute, disrupt and dismantle the organized crime groups and
individuals that pose the highest risk to public safety due to gang violence.
Formed in 2000 reorganized several times
Police Research at CFSEU-BC
Office of strategic Research
The office conducts applied quantitative and qualitative research to develop more
innovative ways to combat gangs and organized crime.
The office oversees the collection, collation, analysis, prep
Experimental & Quasi-experimental Research
[ ]=No treatment
2. Research design
Causation is the focus of explanatory / eval
Sampling and population
Probability (random) sampling
Non-probability (non-random) sampling
What is sampling?
The process of selecting observations.
Two reasons to sample:
Often not possible to study the entire population.
Change office: RM 5164
Measuring the elements of crime
The crime rate
Sources of crime data
Crime is difficult to observe
Hidden, by definition
Both offenders and victims may not want to report/talk about it
Social Science is Value Free
well maybe at least it tries
Has to do with what is and why NOT what should be
- What should be depends on policy/decision makers
Subjectivity vs objectivity
Social Research is Probabilistic
Attempts to find patterns and regul
Crim 220 Lecture 3 (Chapter 4)
General Issues in Research Design
Structuring Criminal Justice Inquiry
- Consider this question: what is the recidivism rate for juveniles released from custody?
Definitions, time, (how is recidivism operationalized? Not ea
Chapter 8: Sampling
What is Sampling?
The process of selecting observations
Two reasons to sample:
1. Often not possible to study entire popn
2. Often not necessary to study entire popn
Allows researcher to use info from a small subset of observations
-deliberation of judges and activities of crown counsel and
defence lawyers are less visible than police
-nunavut has unified court -Nunavut Court of Justice
-criminal court - impaired driving 11%, theft 10%, common
-2/3 completed cases result
-Section 718 Criminal Code
-purpose and principle
-a) denounce unlawful conduct
-b) deter offender and other persons from committing
-c) to separate offenders from society, where necessary
-d) to assist in rehabilitating offenders
Crim 220 Lec 9
Ethics and Social Science Research
Why discuss Ethics?
Research can cause harm
Lessons learned studies can have many implications
Defining Ethics =difference between right and wrong
- In textbook; conforming to the norms and
220 Lec 4
Conceptualization, Operationalization, & Measurement
- Chapter 5 textbook (turn research into researchable questions)
Review of 4 Subtypes of Validity
Conclusion Validity: where the 2 variables are statistically related to each other
Crim 220 Lec.1
(everything in te
Qualitative Interviewing, Focus Groups, Field Research, Secondary Data, & Content Analysis
M & B Chapter 10/11/12
Qualitative Interviewing is the: Interaction between an interviewer and a respondent where the
interviewer has a gen
Crim 220 Lecture 5
Feb. 16, 15
Chapter 7: Experimental Research Designs
- Criminal justice research is to be carried out in a situation expressly brought about for that purpose
A strategy to find something else
1) Taking ac
Week 9: Surveys and Interviews (chap 9)
March 23, 2015
What can be done with surveys?
Perceptions and Attitudes of the public (PewResearchCenter)
Victimization (GSS) (done annually)
Self-Reports of offending (get a sense of how much unreported
Modes of Observation: Sampling Chapter 8
The Logic of Probability Sampling
Sampling = selecting some units of a larger population for further study
o Used because its impossible to collect data from every person, and because it is often
Osbservation & Ethnography
Ethnography / Field Research
Definition: refers to a variety of strategies in which the researcher studies a
group in its natural setting by observing its activities and, to varying degrees,
participating in its activities.