Unit 12 Aging of the Muscular System and Physical Exercise
1. Summarize the age-related changes in skeletal muscle.
Muscle atrophy due to
o Decreased in both number and size of muscle fibers
FT fibers decrease in both number and size
Unit 15 Interventions and the Future
1. Elaborate on the ideas behind the slogan Add years of life and life to years.
Right now the focus is on life to years
o Seems within reach, however a number of aspects remain undefined, such as age-dependent
Unit 14 The Holistic Model, Integration, and Stress in the Elderly
1. Discuss the concepts holistic model and holistic healthy aging.
Holistic Model (of Gerontology)
Studies the elderly person as a psycho-social-bio-medical unity in a total environment
Unit 13 The Use of Medication and the Pharmacokinetis in the Elderly
1. Define briefly the following aspects of pharmacokinetics:
a) Main changes during aging
Drug absorption, transport, distribution in the body, blood levels, tolerance curves, cell reept
Unit 11 Aging of the Skeletal System: Arthritis and Osteoporosis
1. Summarize the main differences between osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and gout.
Characterized by gradual degeneration of joint cartil
Unit 10 Aging of the Digestive System and Nutritional Aspects of Aging
1. Using the data from the theories of aging, explain the main age-related changes in the digestive system.
Decline in cell proliferation might affect squamous ep
UNIT 9 Aging of the Respiratory System
1. Explain the age-related changes in the lungs and thorax that cause increased vulnerability to COPD. Use
emphysema as an example.
Main change = collagen cross-linking and other connective tissue
Unit 5 Aging of the Reproductive System
1. Summarize the main age-related changes in the female reproductive system during aging.
Cessation of the menstrual cycle (major age-related change)
o Body stops producing ovarian hormones (mainly estradiaol)
Unit 4 Aging of the Endocrine System
1. Give an account of the basic age-related changes that increase vulnerability to type 2 diabetes.
No change in the release of insulin (age-related is primarily non-insulin dependent)
Sensitivity of target cells decli
Unit 6 Aging of the Integumentary and Immune Systems
1. Describe the main structural and functional changes in the skin during aging.
Loss of skin tissue (cells + ECM) behind most easily noticed morphological changes in skin with
Cross-linking of extr
Unit 8 Aging of the Urinary System
1. Discuss the main structural changes that occur in the kidney during aging. What do the various theories
of aging state about changes in kidney function?
Loss of kidney mass = mostly because of a decrease in the cortex
Unit 7 Aging of the Cardiovascular System
1. Describe the main intrinsic changes in the CVS during aging.
Changes in collagen structure (increased cross-links) decreases elasticity/recoil of CVS tissue,
which contributes to systolic hypertension and incre
Unit 3 Aging of the Nervous System & Special Senses
1. Describe the gross structural changes in the nervous system during aging.
Human brain loses weight and volume
o Weight peaks at age 20 and begins to decline at 55-65 until 80
o Not due to neuron loss,
UNIT 2 Theories of Aging & Age-Associated Diseases
1. Can changes caused by disease be separated from changes during aging? Elaborate on this
YES (somewhat), as some specific diseases occur more frequently in elderly and are due to old
age, indicating the
Unit 1 Basic Principles
1. Define the following terms:
a) Aging the complex, multifactorial, irreversible, progressive, typical, universal process over time
b) Senescence refers to the later stages of aging, and to imply the presence of a debilitating dis
Aging is a risk factor that no living thing can really escape from. Aging can be described
as decrease in life expectancy due to physiological and chronological change over time. There is
BPK 461 Physiological Aspects of Aging
1. Define the following: aging, senescence, mean longevity, geriatrics, gerontology, holistic model,
i. time independent series of cumulative, progressive, intrinsic and deleteri