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    hallauer, AnnP.Sturtevant, AbdulazizA.Al-Zokeir, n/a, GeorgeJ.Gamboa, AmyK.Banes-Berceli, janedoe, FayM.Hansen, ChristopherJ.Kauhn, FISHWILD, HollyG.Greiner, Walia, Lal, AnneL.Hitt, ShaileshK.Lal, SarahE.Hosch, KeithA.Berven, SHAILESHLAL, LIU, REDDAN, RudragoudaChannappanavar, SheldonR.Gordon, ArikDvir, LanJiang, Yates, TracyL.Wacker, MaryT.Bee, MarkSturtevant, CHAUDHRY, CharlesB.Lindemann, SumitDinda, DouglasL.Wendell, SatishK.Walia, Moyer , RonnyM.Otero, GR.Chaudhry, JohnR.Reddan, ScottD.Tiegs, ThaddeusA.Grudzien, Jenn-TserPan, GerardJ.Madlambayan, SusmitSuvas, Wendell,D, ChhabiGovind, Vanberkum,Mark
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  • 249 terms

    Term:

    Number of known transmitters

    Definition:

    >100

    • Neurobiology: Chapter 6
    • 249 terms
    • Vocabulary for Neurobiology: Chapter 6. Find, create, and access Neurobiology, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 76 terms

    Term:

    Which of the following are characteristic of co-receptor CD4? (select all that apply)

    Definition:

    Binds to MHC Class II Composed of 4 linear domains

    • IM Unit 2 Exam
    • 76 terms
    • Vocabulary for IM Unit 2 Exam. Find, create, and access Immunology, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 64 terms

    Term:

    Electroreceptors

    Definition:

    Two by-products of muscle contractions Noise Very low voltage electricity Sensory receptors that respond to weak electrical fields Modified neuromast organs Found in Sharks, catfish, sturgeon and some teleost fish Two types Ampullary receptors Detect steady, low level electric currents given off by active respiration and muscles Used to locate prey and to navigate Tuberous Receptors Detect phase or rapidly changing discharges of electricity Known only in electric fish (those able to produce electricity)

    • Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 5-9
    • 64 terms
    • Vocabulary for Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 5-9. Find, create, and access Biology, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 22 terms

    Term:

    T cell activation requires 2 signals

    Definition:

    1. TCR + co-receptor bind: MHC + Ag binds TCR MHC binds co-receptor CD4 or CD8 2. Costimulatory molecules bind: CD80/86 (B7) on APC binds CD28 on T cell

    • Lecture 7; Chapter5-partII
    • 22 terms
    • Vocabulary for Lecture 7; Chapter5-partII. Find, create, and access Immunology, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 18 terms

    Term:

    Origin of Vertebrates

    Definition:

    Marine Waters Lack of fossil evidence Living Relatives: Hemichordates Protochordates (Urochordates + Cehpalochordates)

    • Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 2
    • 18 terms
    • Vocabulary for Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 2. Find, create, and access Biology, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 18 terms

    Term:

    Early Chordate Fossils

    Definition:

    Burgess Shale in British Columbia (540 MYBP): Pikaia gracilens- Chordate/Amphioxus- not a true chordate: no gills/myomeres are straight-not V-shaped Fish like- 5cm long Notochord, myomeres Earliest known: Chengjiang formation in China - (early 522 MYBP) discovered in 1990 Haikouella- Most vertebrate-like chordate that resembled amphioxus Chordate features- myomeres, notochord, and pharynx enclosed in atrium Vertebrate-like characteristics- large brain, clearly defined eyes, branchial bars of cartilage, gill filaments, heart, ventral and dorsal aorta Probably vertebrate sister group Oldest Known: Myllokunmingia and Haikouichthyes- (early Cambrian; 520 MYBP) More advanced chordates Small (3cm), fish-shaped Notochord and myomeres provide evidence being chordates Cranium, paired ear capsules, eye capsules at head are vertebrates- formed by neural-crest tissue Dorsal fin, gill pouches, filamentous gills, W-shaped myomeres Conodonts - cone teeth: Resembled amphioxus Greater cephalization, large eyes Teeth made of cellular bone, calcium phosphate crystals, calcified cartilage, enamel and dentin Apparatus (S/M elements) attached to tongue-like plate extended/grasp impaling prey (predators/scavengers) Food passed to pharynx where another set of dental elements sliced and crushed food V-shaped myomeres and notochord, caudal fin rays on postanal tail; dorsal nerve cord Debate on conodonts evolutionary fit General consensus- true vertebrates

    • Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 4
    • 18 terms
    • Vocabulary for Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 4. Find, create, and access Biology, flashcards with Course Hero.
  • 9 terms

    Term:

    Vertebrate Origins

    Definition:

    Fossil Record: Provides little help Searching for ancestors in living groups- problematic (diverged MYA) Saint-Hillarie 1822: Proposed chordate body plan derived from flipped-over version of arthropods Hypothesis argued by Gaskell and Patten (late 19th century) Reasoning: Annelids and Arthropods share- Segmented body plan Brain regionalization (fore- and hind-) Basic chordate body plan; just upside down Ventral nerve cord/aorta become dorsal nerve cord/aorta Weaknesses: Similarities result from analogy not homology Nerve cord is solid (not hollow) developing embryologically Chordates mouth and anus positions are ventral (rolling annelid or arthropod over positions them upward); no embryological evidence for it in chordates Early fundamental development patterns differ in coelom formation, cleavage pattern, etc.

    • Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 3
    • 9 terms
    • Vocabulary for Vertebrate Zoology Lecture 3. Find, create, and access Biology, flashcards with Course Hero.

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