Chapter 1 Outline-The Origin of the Ocean
Earth Is An Ocean World
Marine Scientists Use Science to Study the Ocean
Marine geology study of Earths crust, composition
Physical oceanography study of waves, currents, ocean-atmosphere interaction
Chapter 2 OutlineA History of Marine Science
Understanding the Ocean Began with Voyaging for Trade and Exploration
Oceanus: Latin word for ocean
Voyaging: traveling on water for a specific purpose
Egypt, Crete, Phoenicia
Cartographers made charts of detai
Chapter 7 Atmospheric Circulation
The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor
Lower atmosphere = fairly homogeneous mixture of gases.
Water vapor =~ 4% of the volume.
Density of air = influenced by temperature and water conte
The Hydrologic Cycle
The Water Molecule
Molecule = group of atoms held by chemical bonds.
Chemical bonds form when electrons shared between atoms or moved from
one atom to another.
Water molecule =
2 hydrogen (H), one oxygen, bound
Chapter 3 OutlineEarth Structure and Plate Tectonics
Pieces of Earths Surface Look Like They Once Fit Together
Proposed by Alfred Wegner
Originally a supercontinent: Pangaea
Wegner pointed to existing evidence from mountain ranges and fo
Chapter 8 Outline-Ocean Circulation
Surface Currents Are Driven by the Winds
About 10% of water in ocean = involved in surface currents, water flowing
horizontally in uppermost 400 meters.
Forces driving surface currents and creating gyres:
1. Winds - wes
Chapter 4 Outline Ocean Basins
The Ocean Floor Is Mapped by Bathymetry
Discovery and study of ocean floor contours = bathymetry.
Early studies were often performed using weighted line to measure
the depth of the ocean floor.
Advances in Bathymetry
Anatomy of a Progressive Wave
Orbital Motion of Water Particles in a Wave
Ocean Waves Are Formed By a Disturbing Force
Wave Energy As a Function of Wave Period
Wind Blowing over the Ocean Generates Waves
Capillary waves interrupt s
Life in the Ocean
New way of looking at life
Organism =vessel holding a particular combination of traits
Those traits in that combination are being tested by life form
If organism is successful, it will reproduce
Genes responsible f
Chapter 15 Uses and Abuses of the Ocean
Marine Resources Are Subject to the Economic Laws of Supply and Demand
How are marine resources classified?
1. Physical resources result from deposition, precipitation, or accumulation
of useful substances in ocean
The Distribution of Benthic Organisms Is Rarely Random
Random distribution=position of one organism in bottom community in no way
influences position of other organisms in same community.
Clumped distribution=conditions for growth opti