Energy released from DOWNHILL (exergonic)
reactions used to drive UPHILL (endergonic) reactions
Breaks molecules down
Free energy is released
Exergonic (overall 0>G)
Class 15: Gene Expression
The lac operator is missing
which means the operon cant
be shut down, which means
galactosidease will be produced
all the time. In the presence of
glucose, positive regulation
wont be there. Just deleting the
operator wont preven
Cycle 7: Lecture 14: Eukaryotic Genes
The synthesis and function of a typical tRNA, molecule requires complementary basepairing with itself and other RNA
What is normal?
o When glucose is added, lac operon should decrease
o Go up faster
o Line in blue
Lecture 13: Prokaryotic gene regulation
Where would you expect to find a gene coding for hexokinase in Chlamydomonus?
In the nucleus
How many of these 6 kinds of signals in DNA are understood by the cell as DNA?
The big green one on the right is a promote
Cycle 6: Lecture 12: Gene Structure / Expression
Complementary base pairing by hydrogen bonding
is present in three different compartments of Chlamy and
other plants and touched on that these organelles have a
prokaryotic, bacterial origin and therefo
Class 11: Endosymbiosis and Lateral Gene transfer
The blue arrow represents evolutionary time
The left side is ancient and the right head is less ancient
Bacteria and Archaea don't have a nuclei
The nuclear envelope came from the infolding of the plasma m
Cycle 5: Lecture 10: Evolution of Eukaryotes
Archaea are more similar to eukaryotes than to bacteria
Archaea and bacteria are very different, they have no common ancestor
Neither bacteria or archaea have a nucleus, organelles, and many other things
Lecture 9: Integrated Metabolism II
Photosynthesis & respiration in one cell
Reducing CO2 into glucose, which takes light
CO2 is being consumed and O2 is being
Cellular respiration: youre actually making
CO2 and consuming O2
Gas exchange is opposi
Lecture 8: Integrated metabolism I
One way to measure respiration is to measure oxygen concentration
An oxygen electrode is a sealed chamber. The red is liquid, which is about 2-3 mLs of
purified mitochondria that you can put into th
Lecture 7: Respiration
Takes place in mitochondria
Theres nothing eukaryotic about oxygenic photosynthesis or respiration. These processes
evolved in bacteria.
Theyre prokaryotic cells and behave just like the chloroplast and mitochondria
Theres no carbon
Cycle 3: Lecture 6: Photosynthesis
Organisms that are photosynthetic can take atmospheric CO2 or CO2 that is dissolved in
an aqueous environment and use the energy of light to drive the formation of carbon
dioxide into sugar.
This is an endergonic process
Cycle 8: Lecture 16: Development and Death
When you are a single celled zygote, your nucleus divides, so does the cell. Drosophila
does not do this.
The fruit fly nuclei divide until theres about 500 nuclei, but the cell does not
The nuclei migrate to the
Lecture 17: Regulation and Cancer
Which of the following components of gene expression would be most likely to contain a
lacI gene product because they are the part of a protein that interacts with the DNA
What class of gene would
cycles with 10 pools per cycle [K. Burgess, A. I. Liaw,
and N. Wang. J. Med. Chem. 37, 2985 (1994)].
31. An impurity in the LCMS chromatogram, which was 1H
NMR-silent and had an isotope pattern in its mass spectrum consistent with an osmium-contai
Tom's Lectures this term . . .
Drop in: TH @ 1, F @ 2 pm
Rm 301G NCB
Appointments also by email.
Put 1002B in subject.
Before next lecture . . .
Review this lecture (and background
material in Chapter 14) as needed
Biology 1002- January 23rd, 2012
Lecture 5- Energy and Thermodynamics
Cycle 2: Lecture 5: Membrane Biology
Together, ER and Golgi make the secretory pathway
Proteins that are destined to be secreted are synthesized in the ER and then a vesicle buds
off to ER and joins with the Golgi and then vesicles bud off the Golgi and a