Normal Distribution
 Graph must be symmetric, and bellshaped with mean in the center
 Uniform distribution
o Rectangular graph
o Each value has an equal probability
 Density curve
o Continuous dis
Biol/Stats 2244A Sample Test 1 Questions
Question1.
A psychological survey asks subjects to rate their level of happiness on a scale from 1 (least happy) to
7 (most happy). Which term best describes t
CONTINUOUS RV &
NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS
density curves, N(,), QQ plots, z distribution
Density curves
graph of a continuous probability distribution, with
area of 1.0 and 0 f(x) 1.0
density
P(190)=?
P(>1
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS
centre, shape, and spread; CLT
The discipline of Statistics
conducting studies to collect, summarize,
analyze, and draw conclusions from data
Descriptive Statistics:
organizatio
RANDOM VARIABLES
Discrete RVs, Binomial distributions
Random variables (RV)
a variable which has a numerical outcome of a random
phenomenon (i.e. procedure)
Example: Let X be the RV equal to the numbe
Characteristics of Data
 Center average
 Variation measure of how much data varies amongst itself
 Distribution shape of distribution of data
 Outliers sample values lie outside range of most of d
Inference about Two Proportions
 Requirements
o Both are SRS
o Independent samples from one population not related to samples from the other
In other words, samples dont have anything to do with each
Hypothesis
 Hypothesis statement about property of population
 Hypothesis test procedure to test that statement
 Use RARE EVENT RULE
o If PVALUE IS LESS THAN ALPHA, the assumption is not correct
o
Normal as Approximation to Binomial Distribution
PROBABLITIES
 Requirements
o SRS
o Conditions for binomial distribution satisfied
o Np>=5, nq>=5
 Notation for proportions
o P = probability in enti
Regression
o How to solve
+ episilon(i) REGRESSION EQUATION
Episilon is error term that shows how far each point is from the population regression line
Epsilon(i) ~ N(0, sigma(e)
Shows that
o Popula
Rare Event Rule
 Under assumption, probability of observed event (PVALUE) is small, conclude assumption is not correct
Fundamentals
 Event collection of results of procedure
 Simple event outcome
Random Variables
 Random variable represented by X
o Single number value determined by chance
o Discrete RV finite/infinite COUNTABLE variables
o Continuous RV infinite values on a continuous scale

Correlation
 Also called bivariate data
 Basic concepts
o Correlation relationship between 2 variables
o Use a scatter plot
X and Y represent a one of the two variables used and are plotted together
Introduction
 Population
o the complete collection of all elements (or objects) to be studied
o A parameter
 Sample
o sub collection of members (data points, individuals etc) from a population
o A s
ANOVA
 What is it?
o Method for testing equality of three or more populations by studying sample variances
o Better than using two samples at a time because doing this multiple times will reduce the
Biol/Stats 2244A Sample Test 2 Questions
1. Suppose that two meteorological experts, A and B, independently provide simple weather forecasts of
rain or no rain for the next day. They do this for 100 d
Bio statistics 2244A
FINAL EXAM REVIEW
Christina Wang
December 28th, 2011
CHAPTER 1 NOTES
CHAPTER 1.1
Goal of survey is to collect data from a small part of a larger group so that we can learn
about