*Stats 1st Midterm Review
Chapter 1
Data: Numerical information (Without data, social science would be less scientific=less
valuable)
Statistics: Mathematical techniques used to examine data in order to answer questions and
test theories.
Theory: An expla
Soc 2205 September 26th
Ethnic Origins
British
French
Other
Town A (f)
350
300
200
TOTAL

850
Town B (f)
600
100
140
Town C (f)
1000
10
2
840
1012
Nominal
Discrete
Grouped (frequency counts)
Mode: British
IQV: index of qualitative variation
IQV for Town
Lecture 6
Theoretical Normal Curve
Bell shaped
Unimodal (one peak)
Symmetrical
Unskewed
Mode, Median and Mean are all the same value
o
In the real world they are slightly different
General Relationships:
o
+/ 1 Standard Deviation = about 68%
o
+/ 2 Stan
Chapter 3: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
3.2: Nominallevel Measures
Mode: The value that occurs most frequently
o
Quick and easy measurement of central tendency
o
Great for working with nominal level variables
o
There are some limitations
T
Lecture 5
Variance
Squares the deviation, eliminating negative signs
The sum of the squared deviations is called variance
The square root of the sum of the squared deviations is called standard deviation
Population parameter is designated
Sample statistic
Lecture 4
Selecting Statistical Techniques
Based on how information will be measured and processed:
o
Discrete variable cannot be subdivided
o
Continuous variables can be subdivided infinitely
o
Levels of measurement determine mathematical operations that
Lecture 3
Measures of Central Tendency
Mode: most frequently occurring observation
o
The most common score
o
Can be used with variables at all three levels of measurement
o
Most often used with nominal level variables
o
Finding the Mode
1.
Count the numbe
September 21, 2016
Lecture #2
Nominal, Ordinal, or IntervalRatio
Level of Measurement
Graphs and Charts
Graphs and charts present frequency distributions graphically.
 lets you see patterns and how things are arranged
 beyond tables charts and graphs

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Substance Use of Pregnant Women and Early Neonatal Morbidity:
Where to Focus Intervention?
Igor Burstyn, PhD, Nitin Kapur, MD, Nicola M. Cherry, MD, PhD
ABSTRACT
Background: Few studies, and none in Canada, have examined the relation
BRESCIA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, AT
WESTERN UNIVERSITY
Professor Bell
2015
SOCIOLOGY 2205A
Section 530
COMPUTER ASSIGNMENTS
You are to do two assignments, each worth 5% of your final grade.
You will be using SPSS software to do the assignments.
The textbook fo
Theories
Categories, naming, labeling are common factors for making a theory, main purpose
is to make sense.
Theorizing  Theories are a description to describe the reality
Abstract ideas
What is theory
The ideas are interrelated and overlap between each
Survey Research Part II
How to write good survey questions?
How to obtain usable answers?
How to train yourself as a good interviewer?
General Rules
Clear, Concise & Simple
Creative but scientifically rigourous
(theoreticalconceptualoperational)
Writi
Lecture 2
Levels of Measurement:
Nominal (lowest level of measurement, weakest)
o
Mutually exclusive and exhaustive
o
Covers everybody and everyone falls into one category
o
Easy way to make it exhaustive is using the category "other"
o
Only mathematical
Chapter 2: Basic Descriptive Statistics
2.1: Percentages and Proportions
Percentages and proportions allow for standardizing raw data and making it more
understandable and relatable
Percentages are to the base 100
f = frequency, or the number of cases in
Dr. W.R. Avison
Sociology 2205
SECTION III
Inferential Statistics
A.
The prologue
1.
parameters and statistics
2.
the inference process
a.
b.
testing a hypothesis about a parameter
c.
point vs. interval estimates
d.
B.
estimating a parameter
the concept o
Understand stats through the underlying logic, the algebra, the geometry, the calculation, and by
memorization.
Statistics is a collection of techniques we use to analyze data
Statistics are characteristics of samples
Variable: A characteristic we can obs
Dr. W.R. Avison
Sociology 2205
SECTION II
Univariate Distributions
A.
Measures of central tendency
1.
nominal level data
a.
b.
ratios
c.
proportions and percentages
d.
rates and percentage change
e.
2.
comparisons by subtraction or division
mode
ordinal l
Dr. W.R. Avison
Sociology 2205
SECTION V
Correlation and Regression
A.
General objectives
1.
2.
B.
regression: comparison of conditional distributions using measures of
central tendency
correlation: comparison of conditional distributions using measures o
Dr. W.R. Avison
Sociology 2205
SECTION IV
Bivariate Distributions
A.
The bivariate table
1.
overview
a.
b.
marginal frequencies
c.
B.
the conditional distribution
Zeisels law
Nominal tests of independence and measures of association
1.
association derived
Dr. W.R. Avison
Sociology 2205
SECTION III (continued)
A Simple Demonstration of the Sampling Distribution
1.
Assume we have a population of 5 cases from which we are going to draw a random
sample of 2. The observed values of the five cases in the populat
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1: Why Study Statistics
Research: is any process by which information by which information is systematically
and carefully gathered for the purpose of answering questions, examining ideas, or testing theories
Data: Purpose of sta
Lecture 1
The Role of Statistics
Statistics: are mathematical tools used to organize, summarize and manipulate data
Data: are scores on variables, or information expressed as numbers (quantitatively)
Variables: are traits that can change values from case
Chapter 4: The Normal Curve
4.1: Introduction
The normal curve is a theoretical model
A type of frequency polygon that is unimodal (one single mode/peak)
Symmetrical and unskewed
The mean, median and mode are all the exact same value
Distances along the h
Soc 2206
Chapter 2
Theory and methods are key to social scienes
Aggregates are collection of many individuals, cases, or other units. Social theories
dont explain why a certain individual will do something but more why patterns of
people do things. EX. Si