Lecture 23, 24, 25
ANOVA

What is it?
o
Method for testing equality of three or more populations by studying sample
variances
o
Better than using two samples at a time because doing this multiple times will
reduce the confidence level (CL^trials)
Assumes
LECTURE 1
Slide 3:
Statistics: collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing,
summarizing, analyzing, interpreting, presenting, and drawing conclusions based on the data.
Slide 4:
Statistical inference is used to reac
Biostats 2244 Textbook
Notes Chapter 1 Introduction (Sampling and Study Design)
11 Overview
Data Observations (measurements, genders, survey responses) that have
been collected
Statistics A collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data a
Bio2244 Final Exam Review:
Chapter 2:
Definitions:
Variable: characteristic of a person or think that can be assigned a number or category
Categorical Variables:
1. Ordinal ranked in meaningful order (small, medium, large)
2. NonOrdinal no meaningful ord
Lecture 5
Random Variables

Random variable represented by X
o
o
Discrete RV finite/infinite COUNTABLE variables
o

Single number value determined by chance
Continuous RV infinite values on a continuous scale
Probability distribution graph/table/formula
Lecture 4
Rare Event Rule

Under assumption, probability of observed event (PVALUE) is small, conclude
assumption is not correct
Fundamentals

Event collection of results of procedure

Simple event outcome that cannot be broken down

Sample space all
Lecture 1 & 2
Definitions

Population o the complete collection of all elements (or objects) to be studied o A parameter

Sample
o sub collection of members (data points, individuals etc) from a
population o A statistic

Census collect data from everyo
Lecture 3
Characteristics of Data

Center average

Variation measure of how much data varies amongst itself

Distribution shape of distribution of data

Outliers sample values lie outside range of most of data

Time
Frequency Distribution

Has data
Lecture 6,7,8
Normal Distribution

Graph must be symmetric, and bellshaped with mean in the center

Uniform distribution
o
o

Rectangular graph
Each value has an equal probability
Density curve
o
Continuous distribution
o
requirements
Area under curve
Lecture 13, 14
Overview

Hypothesis statement about property of population

Hypothesis test procedure to test that statement

Use RARE EVENT RULE
o
If PVALUE IS LESS THAN ALPHA, the assumption is not correct
o
In other words, we reject the null hypoth
2244 Midterm Sample Set 1
Question 1.
The incubation periods (in hours) for 8 people who developed food poisoning after consuming contaminated
salad are listed below.
43
20
18
19
14
21
36
28
What is the IQR of these data? Use the procedures as described i
CHAPTER1NOTES
CHAPTER1.1
Goal of survey is to collect data from a small part of a larger group so that we can learn
about the large group, i.e. take a sample to learn about the population
DATA: collected observations (survey responses, measurements, etc
Lecture 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22
Correlation

Also called bivariate data

Basic concepts
o
Correlation relationship between 2 variables
o
Use a scatter plot
o
X and Y represent a one of the two variables used and are plotted
together
Linear correlation coe
Lecture 9, 10, 11, 12
Normal as Approximation to Binomial Distribution PROBABLITIES

Requirements
o
o
Conditions for binomial distribution satisfied
o

SRS
Np>=5, nq>=5
Notation for proportions
o
o
Phat = sample proportion of x successes in sample size
Lecture 14, 15, 16, 17
Inference about Two Proportions

Requirements
o
Both are SRS
o
Independent samples from one population not related to samples from the
other
o

In other words, samples dont have anything to do with each other
For both sample, numb
LECTURE 2
Probabilitychance that something will occur
Definition: A procedure can result in one or more possible events
Ex. of a procedure: rolling a dice and there are several possible events that can come out of that.
An ex of an even would bethe sum of
BIOLOGY 2244BAnalysis & Interpretation of Biological Data
and
STATISTICS 2244BStatistics for Science
Winter 2015
Calendar Descriptions
Stat 2244: An introductory course in the application of statistical methods, intended for honors students in
departments