LECTURE 2: TEMPERATURE I PRINCIPLES OF THERMAL BIOLOGY
A measure of the speed or intensity of the incessant random motions that all the atoms and molecules of any
substance undergo on an atomic-molecular scale. More exactly, the temperature o
Biology 2601A Lecture 9
Gases Exchange 1: Gas Basics
(HWA Chapter 22)
Aerobic Metabolism is dependent on the
exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon
dioxide (CO2) from the environment
Diffusion alone is too slow to maintain the rates of
Neurons - The Great Communicators
Neurons and Supporting Cells.
- all multicelled organisms respond to stimuli.
- neurons are the excitable cells that make up the communication lines of the nervous system.
- animals ow among three types of neurons: sensor
Regulating Internal Fluids
The Human Urinary System.
- the urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra.
- kidneys are bean shaped organs about as large as an adult st.
- enclosed in a protective outer capsule of connectiv
Types of Animal Tissues
- also known as epithelium.
- is a sheetlike tissue in which cells attach to one another by tight junctions.
- one side of the epithelium secrets a layer of proteins called the basement membrane that
glues the ep
-respiration is a physiological process by which gases enter and leave an animal body.
Two Sites of Gas Exchange.
- gas enters and leaves an animals body across the respiratory surface.
- defn: moist layer of epithelial cell
Reproduction and Development
26.2 Modes of Reproduction
- asexual reproduction is a single individual produces offspring that are genetically identical to
the parent and
- all of the genes are in the daughter organism is t
LECTURE 19: PRODUCTION
The term ecosystem was first used by Tansley (1935) to refer to all the components of an ecological system,
biotic and abiotic, that influence the flow of energy and elements
The ecosystem concept integrates ecology with other disci
LECTURE 24: GLOBAL ECOLOGY
Movements of biologically important elements are linked at a global scale that transcends ecological boundaries
Humans are increasingly changing the physical and chemical environment on a global scale
LECTURE 13: PARASITISM
Symbionts organisms that live in or on other organisms
o Not all symbionts are parasites
However, more than half of Earths species are symbionts
Our own bodies can be a home to many other species
A parasite consumes
LECTURE 9: POPULATION GROWTH AND REGULATION
Population Growth: A Case Study
Humans have a large impact on the global environment: our population has
grown explosively, along with our
use of energy and resources
Human population reached 6.8 billion
LECTURE 18 SPECIES DIVERSITY IN COMMUNITIES
Species diversity at local scale two important questions:
o What are the factors that control species diversity within communities?
o What is the effect of species diversity on community function?
LECTURE 22: CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
As the human population has grown, and our use of resources has increased, we have destroyed the habitat of many
A biodiversity crisis has developed. The World Conservation Union lists 16,913 species
LECTURE 12: PREDATORS AND HERBIVORY
Over half the species on Earth get energy by feeding on other organisms, in a variety of types of interactions
All are exploitation a relationship in which one organism benefits by feeding on, and directl
FINAL EXAM SAMPLE QUESTIONS
Define the pelagic zone. What type of autotroph is most common in this zone?
o Pelagic zone: Open water beyond the continental shelves; dominated by plankton
What are four (4) biotic features that could potentially explain the
Blood and Blood Vessels
Components and Functions of Blood.
- average adult = ~4.5L of blood.
- blood consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and plasma.
- plasma is the uid portion of the blood.
- serves as a transport medium for blood cel
Communities and Ecosystems
17.2 Factors That Shape Communities
Community: all populations of all species in an area.
- can vary in size.
- are capable of nesting one inside of another.
- example: a community of microorganisms can live on a rotting tree br
Biology 2601A Lecture 11
Gas Exchange in Plants
TZMM Chpt. 4, pp. 110-116
Chpt. 8 pp. 220-230
dependent on CO2
and O2 exchange
with the environment
Gas Exchange in photosynthe
Biology Undergraduate Society
Also used for defending the nest
Biology 2601: Physiology of Organisms
Photosynthesis & Plant Energetics
Overview of M
Maintain a high and stable body
temperature using internal heat
High resting metabolic rate (cellular,
tissue and whole animal levels).
Insulation (fur, feathers, blubber) is
usually present to retain heat
Biology 2601: Physiology of Organisms
Physiological Regulation and Scaling
internal conditions constant
regardless of external env.
The milieu intrieur
temperature, osmotic pressure,
ions (glucose), gases (O2 and
Claude Bernard (1813 187
The study of how organisms acquire
energy, channel energy into useful
functions, and dissipate energy from their
Catabolism breakdown of molecules to
Anabolism use of energy to assemble
Biology 2601: Organismal Physiology
Lecture 8: Energetics & Mitochondria
D.Furness, Keele University
What happens to the Carbon assimilated through
the Calvin-Benson cycle?
- Consumption of plant materials
by herbivores and omnivores
The Peripheral Nervous System & Central
The Peripheral Nervous System
- somatic nervous system is a set of nerves that control skeletal muscle and relay signals from
joints and skin.
- only part of the nervous system that is under voluntary
Circulation and Respiration
21.2 Moving Substances Throughout a Body
- all animals must keep cells supplied with nutrients and oxygen.
- distributing these is an important aspect of homeostasis.
- it removes waste.
- some invertebrates, gases diffuse thro
Plant Form and Function
27.2 Organization of the Plant Body
Types of Plant Tissues.
- parenchyma: a simple tissue that makes up most of the soft internal parts of the plants.
- cell shape vary with their function but are generally thin and exible.
Organs and Organ Systems
- tissues are organized into organs.
- heart, stomach, liver, eyes, skin, kidney and lungs are all organs.
- most organs include all four types of tissues.
Organs in Body Cavities.
- many organs are located in body cavities.
Digestion and Excretion
23.3 Human Digestive System
In the Mouth.
- mechanical digestion begins.
- teeth tear apart and smash food into smaller pieces.
- humans have four types of teeth: incisors, canine, premolars, molars.
- the tongue helps to mix food
Animal Structure and Function
Organization and Integration.
- all animals are multi-celled, and nearly all cells organize tissues.
- defn: a collection of one or more specic cell types that are organized in a way that suits them