Indigenous Politics Part II
1. What is the difference between the contingent rights approach and the inherent rights
approach to Aboriginal rights?
Core distinction is that the theories vary when it comes to the source, nature, and scope of
Constitutional federalism 1980-1993
o Constitution Act, 1982
o Executive federalism
o Election of Mulroney and PCs signaled new era because of national appeal
o Attempts to bring Quebec into constitution
Meech Lake 1987
1. Have women in Canada achieved gender equality?
Depends on how we define equality. Are we talking about formal or substantive equality?
Formally, yes. Formal equality requires that citizens be given the same basic scheme
1. Why were the 1967 amendments to Canadas Immigration Act significant for patterns
Prior to the act, immigration policy gave preference to whites, specifically people of British,
American, or European descent. This was be
1. To whom does the Charter apply?
Section 32 of the Charter states that the government is subject to it. We as citizens have rights
against the government and its agencies. We cannot allege that our charter rights have been
breached in privat
Indigenous Politics: Part 1
1. What characterized the pre-contact societies of Indigenous peoples? In what ways was
contact with Aboriginal peoples significant to the Europeans who settled in the territory
that would become North America?
-the societies i
Canadas Subnational Units
-federalism is about the kinds of relationships between the levels of government
-both provincial and federal governments have cabinets and committees to study laws; both
have bureaucracies, with the combined provincia
1. What is the role of the judiciary in liberal-democratic theory?
-the judiciary performs a rule adjudication function; it provides formal, authoritative, impartial
judgements on matters of law
-according to liberal democratic theory, the r
Definition: an ideology or political activity aimed at mobilizing regional identities and interests in
support of a particular political claim that is tied to the wellbeing of a regional community. The
claims are made against the larger politi
-sovereignty-supreme and independent power or authority in government
- Canadas first deployment was in the Boer War (1899-1902)
-in English Canada, participation in the war was favoured b/c of strong connection to Britain; the
-must discuss all 3 articles
-criticisms cannot just be re-statements of authors critiques of each other
The executive and the legislature
-the legislature is a means of ensuring democratic control
-two models of democratic control:
-Reasons for Confederation
-institutions- rules of the game-complex sets of established practices that allow usto achieve
2 key elements: an overriding set of purposes or tasks and a patterned
-Fulton-Favreau and Victoria Charter
-Constitution Act, 1982
Four cleavages, Quebec, regionalism, indigenous people, multicultural minorities
Meech Lake Accord (1987)
Charlottetown Accord (1992)
Lessons from Meec
creating policies, raising money, deciding on candidates
with brokerage party nature in mind, deciding which side and what groups
to focus on and devote resources to
Visions of Canada
1. What does a society centered approach to politics entail?
When a state has to decide claims between people, it implicitly states who is recognized and
politically significant and who is not. Decisions made by the state fundamentally t
1. Canadas post-confederation history is characterized by ongoing conflict between
French and English Canadians. In what context must these conflicts be understood?
-there was a great deal of linguistic and religious conflict between Angl
-we should always remember that our perspectives stem from our values
-all varieties of liberalism share the same values but disagree about what these concepts
-2 realms in society; public and private realms; public realm is that of the gove
Canadian federalism at 1867
o Conditions leading to federal union
1.Political tensions within province of Canada
Colonial preference policy
Reciprocity trade agreement
4.Strategic and security concerns
Why are there financing laws?
What difference does money make?
Why is transparency important?
Election Expenses Act, 1974
o Ceiling on party spending
o Ceiling on candidate spending
o Disclosure of contributions
o Tax credit for contrib
Elections and Electoral System
Elections and democracy
o Elections are the defining institutions of modern democracy
o Why elections?
o Do elections guarantee democracy?
Not everyone votes
Is there a bias in results?
House of Commons
Two central functions of the House of Commons:
Reasons for territorial inequality
o Senate floor rule (senatorial clause)
Provinces cannot fewer MPs than they have senators
o Grandfather clause
Prime Minister and Cabinet
Cabinet members selected from legislature
Principle of responsible government: theory
o A sacred principle of Canadian government
o Executive must retain confidence of elected legislature
If confidence is lost, must either resi
House of Commons
Two central functions of the House of Commons
Functions of the House of Commons
1. Make a government
2. Make a government work
3. Make a government behave
4. Make an alternative government
Power in the
House of Commons
Why the House matters?
o Negative power
Reform of the House of Commons
o Some proposals:
Relaxed discipline 3 whip system
1 line whip free vote
2 line whip party points direction, but MP can decide
Lead-up to the Constitution Act, 1982
o Quebec referendum in 1980
o Trudeaus promise of renewed constitution
o Supreme court reference by Gang of 8 leading to substantial provincial consent ruling
o Final negotiations and night of the long knives
Political party: organized group that nominates candidates and contests elections in order to
influence the personnel and policy of government
Parties are separate from the state
Functions of political parties
o Integrating citizens into
1. What does it mean to say that sexual identity is socially constructed?
Social constructs? Human personal characteristics are socio-politically relevant matter of
societal choice, which categories are relevant
Sex, race and gender are typicall
Canadas Liberal-Democratic Foundations
1. What is an ideology?
A specific kind of political theory. These have 3 basic characteristics: they incorporate a
statement of ideal political values, as well as an action plan to achieve those val
-check PMs power
-sober second thought/improve legislation-Senate can take its time vs. the House which caters
to hot button issues
-no constituent pressure
-regions-reason the Senate exists