Chapter 4:
Probability
The Law of Total Probability
Let S1 , S2 , S3 ,., Sk be mutually exclusive and
exhaustive events (that is, one and only one must
happen). Then the probability of any event A can
be written as
P(A) = P(A S11)+ P(A S22)+ + P(A Skk)
P(

Chapter 3:
Descriptive
Statistics
Learning Objectives
The focus of Chapter 3 is the use of statistical techniques to
describe data, thereby enabling you to:
Apply various measures of central tendency including the
mean, median, and modeto a set of ungrou

Midterm Exam - Practice Questions Set 2
Questions taken off Statistics 2035 Exams from 2012-13
1.
In the USA, 30% of all individual bankruptcies are due to the individual being unable to pay their
medical bills. In a random sample of 500 individual bankru

Weighted Means and Grouped Data (Section 2.8)
(I)
Weighted Means
In calculating the mean of a population or sample, we sum each measurement and divide
by the number of measurements
that is, each measurement is given the same importance or weight
But some

Graphical Displays for Qualitative Data (section 2.5)
1. Bar Graph (Bar Chart)
main form of graphical display for categorical (qualitative) data
categories on horizontal axis
relative frequencies (or frequencies) on vertical axis
each bar is drawn sep

Scatterplots (section 2.6)
In most statistical analysis,
1.
2.
3.
Things begin with a question
Data is gathered
Data is graphed
Relationships between 2 quantitative variables are best displayed graphically using a scatterplot
A Scatterplot Shows:
1.
Wheth

Percentiles and Boxplots (section2.4)
So far, we have looked at the following statistics to help us describe a distribution of
quantitative data:
Mean, median, mode
Variance/standard deviation, range
Z-scores; coefficient of variation
We now look at anoth

Describing Central Tendency (section 2.2)
In addition to graphing the data, we can gain more insight by condensing the data into a
few single numbers which will summarize the distribution in a clear and concise manner
these single numbers are called stati

Chapter 2 Descriptive Statistics
In this chapter we will learn about descriptive statistics which is the science of describing
the important characteristics of a population or sample
We will be interested in things like:
The shape of the distribution of t

Extra Notes on Chapter 1 Samples and Surveys
Populations and Samples (section 1.1)
What is a population?
It is a set of all units that you are interested in studying
Units = people OR objects OR events
Examples
1. All undergraduate students at Western (cu

STATS 2035 FINAL EXAM PRACTICE QUESTIONS
(Chapters 10, 11, 12, and 14)
A dummy variable
a varies continuously over the range 0 to l
b is not a true variable, because it has a zero variance
c. can be used to measure a numerical value such as salary
d can b

Chapter 1:
Introduction to
Statistics
Learning Objectives
LO1
LO2
LO3
LO4
Define statistics and list example applications of
statistics in business.
Define important statistical terms, including
population, sample, parameter, statistic, as they
relate to

Chapter 4:
Probability
The Law of Total Probability
Let S1 , S2 , S3 ,., Sk be mutually exclusive and
exhaustive events (that is, one and only one must
happen). Then the probability of any event A can
be written as
P(A) = P(A S11)+ P(A S22)+ + P(A Skk)
P(

Chapter 4:
Probability
Four Types of Probability
Marginal Probability
Union Probability
Joint Probability
Conditional Probability
Four Types of Probability
General Law of Addition
Calculating Probabilities for
Unions and Complements
There are special

Chapter 4:
Probability
Learning Objectives
LO1
LO2
LO3
L04
Describe what probability is and when one would use
it.
Differentiate among three methods of assigning
probabilities: the classical method, relative frequency
of occurrence, and subjective probabi

Chapter 4:
Probability
Counting Rules
Sample space of throwing 3 dice has 216
entries, sample space of throwing 4 dice has
1296 entries,
At some point, we have to stop listing and start
thinking
We need some counting rules
Counting the Possibilities

Statistical Science 2035
Section 001
Review Quiz1
Quiz Rules
Do not enter until the quizzes are set up.
Starts at 9:30am sharp and will run until 9:45am.
No extra time will be provided for late arrivals.
Arrivals after 3:35pm will not be allowed to en

Statistical Science 2035
Section 001
Review Quiz1
Quiz Rules
Do not enter until the quizzes are set up.
Starts at 9:30am sharp and will run until 9:45am.
No extra time will be provided for late arrivals.
Arrivals after 3:35pm will not be allowed to en

Chapter 4:
Probability
TA office hours starting this week (Thursday)
Western Science Center (WSC) Room # 250
Thursday : 10:30 am Noon, 3:30 pm 5:30 pm
Friday
: 10:30 am Noon, 3:30 pm 5:30 pm
Learning Objectives
LO1
LO2
LO3
L04
Describe what probability

Chapter 3:
Descriptive
Statistics
Learning Objectives
The focus of Chapter 3 is the use of statistical techniques to
describe data, thereby enabling you to:
Apply various measures of central tendency including the
mean, median, and modeto a set of ungrou

Chapter 3:
Descriptive
Statistics
Learning Objectives
The focus of Chapter 3 is the use of statistical techniques to
describe data, thereby enabling you to:
Apply various measures of central tendency including the
mean, median, and modeto a set of ungrou

Chapter 1:
Introduction to
Statistics
Learning Objectives
LO1
LO2
LO3
LO4
Define statistics and list example applications of
statistics in business.
Define important statistical terms, including
population, sample, parameter, statistic, as they
relate to

Chapter 2:
Charts and
Graphs
Learning Objectives
LO1
LO2
LO3
LO4
Explain the difference between grouped and ungrouped data and construct a frequency distribution
from a set of data and explain what the distribution
represents.
Describe and construct diffe

Chapter 1:
Introduction to
Statistics
Learning Objectives
LO1
LO2
LO3
LO4
Define statistics and list example applications of
statistics in business.
Define important statistical terms, including
population, sample, and parameter, as they relate to
descrip

Answer Key to Midterm Practice Question Set #2
Question
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Answer
B
A
C
D
D
B
A
D
C
A
A
C
Question
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Answer
B
B
A
B
D
D
C
A
B
C
C
D
Question
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
Answer
A
D
C
C
A
B
C

Midterm Exam - Practice Questions Set 1
Questions taken off Statistics 2035 Exams from 2013-14
Use the following information for the next TWO questions:
We need to survey a random sample of the 300 passengers on a flight from Vancouver to Tokyo. In the
qu

Inference about the Equality of the Population Variances (section 8.4)
If you wish to be reasonably certain that 0'12 = 0‘22 (so that you can use the pooled r-test),
you may want to perform a statistical test that tests the hypothesis:
_ 2_ 2 _ 2 2
Ho. 01