Dr. Barr Lecture 1: Lecture 3 in total
Positive Single-stranded RNA viruses
Viruses are very simple and they are also very good at replicating, to do so they require
very little set of genes
Transcribing and translation
Genes that are required to due tran
Negative Single Stranded RNA Viruses
Viruses that contain a single strand of RNA that is in the opposite coding of what would
normally be read from ribosomes
Positive sense can be read directly by ribosomes
Negative strand cant be read directly by ribosom
Small DNA viruses
Parvoviruses, Polymaviruses, Papillomaviruses
Small DNA Viruses Defined
Viruses with DNA genomes <10kb
Genome size limits gene number to 5-10
Depend on cellular enzymes to transcribe and replicate their genome
Hence viral genomes must be
Intrinsic cellular defenses against virus infection
Detection of virus infection
Cells have many ways to recognize foreign pathogens that include bacteria, fungi and
Viruses are interesting can be detected outside and within cell itself.
Eukaryotic Viral Vectors
Know so much about these viruses, understand them molecular and disease
pathogenesis very well, can engineer them to express specific genes, cellular genes or
mutant genes, genes from other animals. You can deliver th
Viruses and Virology Lecture 1
Cowpox virus used to vaccinate against smallpox by Jenner.
1879 Mayer, 1890 Ivanofsky Filterable infectious agents
Description of filterable infectious agent (TMV) by Ivanovsky.
Concept of the
Bacteriophages- Lec 2.
Single Stranded RNA bacteriophages
one of the most phages associated with the gastrointestinal tract and highly abundant,
extremely simple viruses, single coat protein w/ one copy of maturation protein and
highly selective RNA, in a
Barr Lecture #3- Double Stranded RNA Viruses
they are quite different to what we have talked about before, two strands of DNA:
positive and negative strand.
Hard to replicate
Well studied virus: first dsRNA virus to be identified, lot of unique p
Vaccines: Approaches, Development and Considerations
Vaccination remains one of medicines most cost-effective and efficacious treatments for
the prevention of human morbidity and mortality. Eradicated small pox and almost polio.
Almost many child hood dis
Viriods and Hepatitis Delta Virus
Autonomously replicating pathogens- dont require a cellular host for a lot of their
replication mechanism, they encode exactly what they need to survive, very simply
elements, quite distinct and different from typ
The Anaerobic way of life: Anaerobic Respiration
Assimilative- the reduction of inorganic compounds to produce cellular materials and
Dissimilative- the reduction of inorganic compounds for energy and the products are
secreted out of
Microbiology and Immunology 3400 B- Diversity of Prokaryotes
Section 1: Microbial Diversity: Diversity and Phylogeny
Section 2.5 Elements of Microbial Structure
All cells have much in common and contain many of the same components.
For example, all cells
Section 2: Metabolic Diversity, the phototrophic way of life
The most important biological process on earth is photosynthesis, the conversion of light
energy to chemical energy.
Organisms that carry out photosynthesis are called photot
Survey of Bacteria and Archaea
Phylogenetic Overview of Bacteria
All known disease-causing (pathogenic) prokaryotesare here, as are thousands of nonpathogenic species
Some of the evolutionary groups (phyla) are those previously distinguished by some
Microbial Environments: Biofilms in nature and disease
I Principles of Microbial Ecology
NOT TRUE- about microorganisms do not live alone in nature instead interact with other
organisms and with their environment.
For example, Desulforudis audaxviator
Anaerobic Way Fermentation
Fermentatio: glycolysis, fermentation in : (lactic acid bacteria, enteric bacteria, clostridia),
energy generation without substrate-level phosphorylation.
Proton motive force: the energized state of a membrane created by
Founders of General Microbiology
Interested in bacteria that inhabit soil and water
Developed the concept of the enrichment culture
Also interested in bacteria that inhabit soil and water
Microorganisms that grow optimally in extreme environments, rather than just
Found at extremes of: Temperature (high and low), pressure (e.g. marine
microbiology), pH(acidity or alkalinity), salinity (some combinations exist: