How Enzymes Lower the EA Barrier
Proteins, DNA, and other complex molecules of the cell are rich in free energy and have the
potential to decompose spontaneously. These molecules persist only because at temperatures
typical for cells, few molecules can ma
Final Keypoints for before Brandl
Explain the chemical structure of nucleic acid polymers, without memorizing the structures of
the nitrogenous bases
-nucleoside: ribose w. n-glyosidic bond at 1 to a nitrogenous base
-nucleotide: above + a pho
Chapter 5 Macromolecules
A hydrogen from the water attaches to one monomer and a hydroxyl (OH) attaches to the
adjacent monomer, breaking up the polymer.
The Diversity of Polymers
Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules; The inher
Cell Division results in genetically identical daughter cells.
Cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material- DNA- to two daughter cells.
A cells genetic information is called a genome. Eukaryotic
Each of the two sister chromatids of a chromosome has a kinetochore, a structure of proteins
associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere. The chromosomes
two kinetochores face in opposite directions. During prophase, some of the
Metabolism is an emergent property that arises from interactions between molecules within
orderly environment of the cell.
Organization of the Chemistry of Life
A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecules, which is then altered in a
Equilibrium and Metabolism
Reactions in a closed system eventually reach equilibrium and can then do no work. The
chemical reactions of metabolism are reversible. Because systems at equilibrium are at a
minimum of G and can do no work, a cell th
Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals
The cell cycle is driven by specific molecular signals present in the cytoplasm.
The Cell Cycle Control System
The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system, a
To identify the components of 3 unknown mixtures based on molar mass and the
retention time using the gas chromatography.
Using a gas chromatography, we will separate and examine complex mixtures of
materials. Each material
There are 4 levels of protein structure known as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
when a protein consists of two or more polypeptide chains) *study pages 82-83*
Even a slight change in primary structure can affect a proteins conf
Similar to lipids but only have two fatty acids attached to glycerol rather than three. The
group of glycerol is joined to a phosphate group.
They show ambivalent behavior toward water. Their hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic
Understand the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.
Be familiar with the basic structure of the amino acids.
Know the 4 classes of amino acids.
(1) non-polar and neutral,
(2) polar and neutral,
(3) acidic and polar,
(4) basic and