What Are Maps?
Useful tools that help visualize the shape of countries and locate important features
Have been used in the world for over 4500 years for exploring, determining location and
direction, and for simplifying the shape and
Exam Review Questions
This set of questions does not cover all the topics of the test.
Use it together with the first exam review sheet that is posted on the class website.
1) Earthquakes and volcanoes frequently occur
A) along ocean shorelines.
Factors That Influence Climate
Energy from the sun hits the earth in different ways:
o Energy that hits the equator covers a small area
o Same amount of energy that hits a more northerly location is spread
over a larger area because of the curvat
You cannot survive without water for more than a few days
Humans require about 2.5 L of water each day
2-thirds of the human body is made up of water
3 quarters of the earths surface is covered with water
o This wa
Location Factors for Manufacturing
1) Access to freshwater + power
a. Close to generating stations which make power
2) Transportation routes
3) Raw materials
4) Market People to buy products
5) Political facto
Chapter 18 Settlement Patterns
The pattern showing where people live in a region.
A mathematical calculation of the number of people who live in each square
kilometer of land.
Chapter 19 - Types of Urban Places
Cities do not start out as cities, they begin as smaller settlements and develop and grow. The category
of a place depends on the population and activities that occur in the area. The hierarchy of places is
ranking of si
Pg. 33 34
In your notebook, use Fig. 3-5 to identify the missing elements in the following essay.
Macdonald Cartier Freeway
Test Prep Environment
1) What is an ecological footprint?
An ecological footprint is a measure of total human impact on an ecosystem.
2) What does an ecological footprint measure?
It measures how much land a person (or population) requires in order to pro
Map Skills Note 1.2
o Labels on maps must be printed, horizontal and straight.
o Do not underline labels on maps.
o The size and boldness of letters may show importance or size (big cities have big letters).
eg. Burlington Toronto
Map Skills Note 1.3
Grid Systems on Maps
There are three types of grid systems used on maps.
o The Alpha-Numeric Grid:
This type of grid uses letters down one edge of a map and numbers down the other. Match these
letters and numbers to find a sq
Map Skills Note 1.1
Features of A Map
There are six essential features of a map.
Should be meaningful and give information about the map.
Shows how large things are on the map in comparison to the real world.
Location and Manufacturing
Availability of Raw Materials
Companies need to locate themselves in an area that is close to reliable sources of raw
Location of Markets
Companies need to locate themselves in an area that is close to the majority o
1) It means that we use so much water, but most of it goes to waste. Only a small percent is used
for consuming purposes.
2) Water from bodies of water gets evaporated, then condensed into clouds. It then falls as
precipitation onto the earth. The water e
Introduction to the Study of Population
On an average day, about
o 1070 babies are born in Canada
o 610 people die
o 610 people immigrate to Canada
o 135 people emigrate from Canada
At the end of the day, there are 970 more people living in Canada than th
Environment Unit Test Notes
Available water around the world
An average Canadian uses about 330 litres of water a day for personal use
while they only need 2.5 litres drinking water a day to stay healthy
Canadians are the second largest water user
Map Skills Note 1.4
Types of Maps
There are three main types of maps.
o General Purpose:
Shows many types of information.
eg. Road map
Shows one specific type of information.
eg. A map showing income
Shows landforms and
Map Skills Note 1.6
Compass and Bearings
The compass rose is a common way to show direction on a map. The 4 major directions (North, South,
East, West) are called cardinal points. The 4 sub-directions (Northeast, Southeast, Southwest,
Map Skills Note 1.10
Contours of Elevation
Contour Lines are used to show elevation and
topography. Topography means the shape of the
land. The closer together the contour lines are, the
steeper the landscape Contour lines must always
form a con
Chapter 19 - Types of Urban Places
Cities do not start out as cities, they begin as smaller settlements and develop and grow. The category of a place depends on the
population and activities that occur in the area. The hierarchy of places is ranking of si
Map Skills Note 1.8
Time zones give specific areas on the Earth a time of day that is earlier or later than the neighbouring
time zones. This is because when it is day-time on one side of the earth, it is night-time on the other
Map Skills Note 1.9
A scale shows the relationship between the distance on a map and the distance on the Earths surface.
There are three types of scales:
o Direct Statement Scale (Verbal):
This type of scale uses words to describe what a
Map Skills Note 1.6
Latitude and Longitude
Latitude and longitude are like a grid system for the entire planet. Lines of longitude run from the
north pole to the south pole. Lines of latitude run around the globe, parallel to the equator.
Map Skills Note 1.7
Important Lines of Latitude
North Pole - 90 N
Arctic Circle 66.5N
Tropic of Cancer 23.5 N *
Equator - 0
Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 S
Antarctic Circle 66.5 S
South Pole - 90 S
* The earth is tilted at 23.5 vertical. This gives u
National Parks are a country-wide system of representative natural areas of Canadian significance. By
law, they are protected for public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment while being preserved
in an unimpaired state for fut
Factors that Influence Climate
Also known as: LOWER near water
L for Latitude
for Ocean Currents
W for Winds and air masses
E for Elevation
R for Relief
The earth's curvature causes the sun's energy to be less concentr
Mapping Test Prep
1) What are the six essential features of a map?
Title: shows what the information on the map is about
Legend: shows what the symbols and colours on the map mean
Scale: shows how the distance on the map compares with the real world
Physical Geography Test Prep
What is the surface of the earth?
The surface of the earth is a thin layer of moving plates.
What is below the surface of the earth?
Below the plates is a material that is also in motion.
What do earthquakes indicate?
Emond Montgomery Publications Limited
Human Systems Demographics
Population Pyramids Canada
CANADAS POPULATION IN 1961
There are bulges and
narrower parts in the
middle part of the
pyramid. The people
in their 20s in 1961
were born during the
Canada's Population Growth
1. Go to www.statcan.ca/english/Pgdb/demo03.htm to get a table on Population Growth. Note: the
individual births, deaths, immigration and emigration numbers do not necessarily add up to the
total population growth due