CLASS 3: Albert Einstein
Standard Candle: Supernovae (SN) with the same characteristic brightness used to estimate
-All type IA supernovae are standard candles
-Supernovae > distance to distant galaxies > expansion history of univ
Astro Lecture 4 The Origin of Matter
Matter the historical view
-What would happen if you kept dividing something up into smaller and
smaller pieces. Would it no longer be the same element?
-The smallest piece of an element that remains is called an atom
Astro Lecture 3 Notes
The Geometry of the Universe
A closed Universe ( 0>1) will have a positive curvature, like a sphere.
An open Universe ( 0< 1) will have a negative curvature, like a saddle.
A flat Universe (0=1) will have no curvature, and will be fl
Astronomy Final Exam
Chapter 4: Blast from the Past: the Origin of Matter
Chemical evolution started in the Big Bang
Two very hard won facts by science that help understand the origin of matter
o First is that matter is frozen energy
E = MC2
o Second is
Astronomy Textbook Notes:
Chapter 1: The Shores Of Light
Ancient Greeks thought that the earth, a sphere, was at the center of the
universe orbited by crystalline spheres which represented suns, moons and
stars. Known as the heliocentric cosmology develop
Astronomy 2022B: The Origin of the Universe
An introduction to current ideas about the origin of the Universe. Topics to be discussed include:
Why is the Universe the way it is? The Big Bang and why we think it happened. The beg
What is the Universe?
How has our
understanding of the
Universe increased over
How do we know what we
think we know about the
Before we begin: Scientific Notation
In astronomy, numb
The Geometry of the
Does the Universe have a center? An edge? Is it
infinite or finite?
Will the Universe keep on expanding or re-collapse?
What does it mean for the Universe itself to be
What is a black hole?
Astronomy 2022 Midterm #1
Covering Chapters 1, 2, and 3
o Think about the number of zeroes
o 3,000,000,000 = 3 x 109
o 4.1332 x 107 = 41,332,000
o Same when thinking inversely 6 x 10 -10 = 0.0000000006
o Astronomical Unit
Astro Lecture 10 A Place for Us
-Giovanni Schiaparelli discovered canals in 1877 on mars
-meant channels as canali means channels
-Percival Lowell mapped Mars by eye
-early on, telescopes couldnt rule out the thought of canals and thus thought them
Astro Lecture 9 What Caused the Universe?
I: Paradox of first cause
-every effect has a cause. So the beginning of the universe must have had a cause
-St. Thomas Aquinas Cosmological Proof of the existence of God is that cause
-Some arguments a
Astro Lecture 5 The Riddle of Dark Matter
-are there different types of matter? Ordinary matter, composed of protons, neutrons
(baryons), and electrons are called baryonic matter
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis the creation of the nuclei of ordinary matter
Astro Lecture 1
What is the Universe/Cosmos?
-theyre both the same thing
-they are everything, all space, matter and energy that is accessible to us
-like no portals that takes us to another dimension
Cosmology is the study of the universe as a whole.
Astro Lecture 2 notes
The Expansion of the Universe
-Everything ever observed in the universe is made of either matter or energy
-E=mc2 relationship of matter and energy
-thus, universe is a vast space-time filled with matter-energy
-total amount of mass-
Astro Lecture 6 Large-Scale Structure in the Universe and Dark Energy
-Steady State the first cosmologists assumed a universe that was uniform and
infinite in time and space and unchanging
-the observable universe is finite even if the universe is infinit
Astro Lecture 7 Symmetry and Imperfection
-spherical symmetry no matter how you rotate or move it, its observable
properties remain the same. Thus the greeks considered it the perfect geometric
-reflection symmetry or mirror symmetry
-a glove lacks
Astro Lecture 8 The Speed of Space: Inflation
Unresolved issues in the standard BB model:
-The Flatness Problem
-The Large-Scale Structure Problem
-The Relic Problem
The Horizon Problem:
-The standard BB theory has the Universe expanding
The Expansion of the
What is a scientific theory?
What is space?
Can anything influence/change/warp/tear
If the Universe is a big space with stuff in
it, what does our understanding of space
mean for the