Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 12
General Rules of Probability
Two events are disjoint if they
have no outcomes in common
Events A
and B are
disjoint.
and can never happen together.
Events A and
B are NOT
disjoint.
If you flip a coin once, it may turn o
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 6
Two-Way Tables
Chapter Overview
Two-way table
Marginal distribution
Conditional distribution
Simpsons paradox
Two way table
Describe relationship between two categorical
variables
Use the counts or percentage or pr
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 8
Producing Data: Sampling
Chapter Overview
Population and Sample
How to sample badly
Simple random samples and inference
Other sampling designs
Cautions about sample surveys
Population, sample, sampling design
Want
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 5
Regression
Chapter Overview
Regression Line
Least-square regression and its properties
Residuals and Residual plots
Influential observations
Cautions about correlation and regression
Association and causation
Revie
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 3
The Normal Distribution
Chapter Overview
Density Curves
(Standard) Normal distribution
68-95-99.7 rule and other properties
Reading standard Normal table
Before Density Curves
We use models (smooth curves) to examin
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 1
Picturing Distributions with Graphs
Chapter Overview
Individuals and variables
Categorical variables: pie charts and bar charts
Quantitative variables: histograms and stem
plots
Time plots
Individuals and variables
E
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 2
Describing Distributions with Numbers
Chapter Overview
Measuring center: the mean and the median
Comparing the mean and the median
Measuring the spread: the quartiles and the
standard deviation
Choosing measures of c
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 4
Scatterplots and Correlation
In Chapter 4, We Cover
Explanatory and response variables
Displaying relationships: scatterplots
Interpreting scatterplots
Adding categorical variables to scatterplots
Measuring linear a
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 4
Scatterplots and Correlation
In Chapter 4, We Cover
Explanatory and response variables
Displaying relationships: scatterplots
Interpreting scatterplots
Adding categorical variables to scatterplots
Measuring linear a
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 4
Scatterplots and Correlation
In Chapter 4, We Cover
Explanatory and response variables
Displaying relationships: scatterplots
Interpreting scatterplots
Adding categorical variables to scatterplots
Measuring linear a
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 3
The Normal Distribution
Cumulative Proportions
The cumulative proportion for a value x in a distribution is
the proportion of observations in the distribution that are
less than or equal to x.
Cumulative Proportions:
Exa
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 4
Scatterplots and Correlation
Chapter Overview
Explanatory and response variables
Scatterplots and interpretation
Categorical variable in scatterplots
Correlation and its properties
Explanatory and Response Variable
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 4
Scatterplots and Correlation
In many studies, the goal is to show that changes in or more explanatory
Variables cause changes in a response variable
Example: number of beers consumed and the percent of alcohol in the
blo
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 3
The Normal Distribution
Sometimes the overall pattern of a large number
of observations is so regular that we can
describe it by a smooth curve
Example Data: Heights of 3000 Criminals
distribution
of heights of
3000
cr
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 6
Two-Way Tables
Categorical Variables
2
Review: Categorical Variables place individuals into one of several
groups or categories.
The values of a categorical variable are labels for the different
categories.
The distribut
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 10
Introducing Probability
Why studying probability?
You randomly sampled 1000 people to
estimate the percentage of people who will
vote for Trump.
I also randomly sampled 1000 people to
estimate the percentage of people
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 5
Regression
Origin of the Term Regression
Francis Galton, 1886,
Regression towards
mediocrity in hereditary
stature. Journal of the
Anthropological Institute,
15: 246 263
See JSTOR under UWO
library databases
Regression
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 9
Producing Data: Experiments
Confounding: A Common Problem with
Observational Studies
Example
want to compare pay levels between two types
of jobs: inside workers and outside workers
the inside workers evaluated turn ou
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 2
Describing Distributions with Numbers
Henry Cavendish (1731 1810)
British scientist
carried out wide-ranging
scientific studies that
included
chemistry
electricity
physics
astronomy
Cavendish Laboratory for
physics at
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 8
Producing Data: Sampling
Surveys
take a sample from a larger population
interview or obtain responses from every
unit in the sample
based on the sample results make
inferences about the larger population
Population, S
Observational study
Observational studysurvey
How to ensure that your sample represents
the population wellhow to reduce bias
Randomization(SRS)
Stratifying
Even with randomization, one still needs to
keep in mind possible problems caused by
Underco
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 1
Picturing Distributions with Graphs
Figure 1.1
A spreadsheet displaying data from the American Community Survey, for Example 1.1.
Individuals and Variables
Any set of data contains information about some group of individ
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 3
The Normal Distribution
Example: Heights of Women
Assume womens heights have a normal distribution with
mean 163.8 cm and a standard deviation of 6.4 cm
Then
has a standard normal distribution
Standard Normal Distributio
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 3
The Normal Distribution
In Chapter 3, We Cover
Density curves
Describing density curves
Normal distributions
The 68-95-99.7 rule
The standard Normal distribution
Finding Normal proportions
Using the standard Norma
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 10
Introducing Probability
Long-run Frequencies:
Tossing Heads with a Coin
10 tosses
0.600 heads
100 tosses
0.530 heads
more coins
1000 tosses
0.508 heads
10000 tosses
0.496 heads
Coin toss
The result of any single
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 12
General Rules of Probability
Two events are disjoint if they
have no outcomes in common
Events A
and B are
disjoint.
and can never happen together.
Events A and
B are NOT
disjoint.
If you flip a coin once, it may turn o
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 6
Two-Way Tables
Example:
U.S. Survey of Youth in Custody (1987)
Two variables: Race and
Type of crime
Race
1 = white
2 = black
3 = other (aboriginal,
Asian, etc)
Type of crime
1 = violent (murder, rape,
robbery, assau
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 14
Confidence Intervals: The Basics
Two Aspects of Inference
Point and interval estimation
Confidence intervals (this chapter)
What are they?
How are they calculated?
How are they interpreted?
Testing ideas or theories
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 11
Sampling Distributions
Parameters and Statistics
Population: the entire group of
individuals in which we are
interested but cant usually
assess directly.
Sample: the part of the
population we actually examine
and for