Explanatory variable/ independent variable: explain or influence changes in a response variable
Response variable/ dependent variable: measures an outcome of a study
Displaying relationships: scatterplots
The most useful graph for displaying the relations
Chapter 9 Probability
9.1 The idea of Probability
Chance behaviour/ probability is unpredictable in the short run but has a regular and predictable pattern
in the long run. The proportion in a small or moderate number of tosses can be far from the probabi
2244 Test 2 Sample Set 7
Question 1.
At grocery stores, employees move products to the front of the shelf. In refrigerated sections of the
store, the employees not only move products forward, but also make sure the products with the earliest
best before d
2244 Test 2 Sample Set 5 (W2016)
Question 1.
A sales representative for Flora, a natural nutrient and supplements company, is conducting a survey for
market research. The representative asks questions that involve the following four variables. Which of
th
2244 Test 2 Sample Set 1 (W2016)
Question 1.
Midterm grades for the 120 students taking an introductory Physics course are summarized in the following
frequency distribution:
Number of
Grade (%)
Students
20% -30%
7
30% -40%
10
40% - 50%
11
50% - 60%
15
60
2244 Test 2 Sample Set 6 (W2016)
Question 1.
Sidney Crosby, a National Hockey League (NHL) player
with the Pittsburgh Penguins, scored between 0 and 5
points per game during the regular 2014-2015 NHL
season. Sidneys points scored per game for that season
2244 Test 2 Sample Set 2 (W2016)
Question 1.
A population consists of N=661 individuals. Selected R output summarizing the distribution of variable X
for these 661 individuals is included below. What is the mean of the sampling distribution of sample
mean
2244 Test 2 Sample Set 3 (W2016)
Question 1.
The incubation periods (in hours) for 8 people who developed food poisoning after consuming contaminated
salad are listed below.
43
20
18
19
14
21
36
28
What is the IQR of these data? Use the procedures as desc
TYPES OF DATA
Interval the difference between two values is meaningful
Nominal qualitative labels
Ratio all the properties of interval, but a clear 0 point
Ordinal - order matters, but not the difference between values
TYPES OF SAMPLING
Cluster divide peo
CHAPTER 9
EXERCISE 9.2
Part A
1. a) There are 3 places the one girl can occur
F
F
F
I
F G F
I
@AB) = 3 EGH EGH EGH = J or PAA) LIGM EGH EGH = J
F P
F
b) @AO) = EGH = FQ
F
F
F
F
c) @AR) = EGH EGH EGH = J
F
F
F
F
G
G
G
J
P
P
P
QP
a) @AB) = EUH EUH EUH = FGU
CHAPTER 6
EXERCISE 6.2
Part A
1.
P = 22.50a40|.04 + 500(1.04) 40
or P = 500 + (22.50 20)a40|.04 = $549.48
2.
P = 45a30|.05 + 1000(1.05) 30
or P = 1000 + (45 50)a30|.05 = $923.14
3.
P = 65a30|i + 2000(1 + i) 30 where i = (1 +
or P = 2000 + (65 2000i)a30|i
Writing your paper
Table 3.4 Golden rules for reporting numbers.
Rule
Correct expression
Numbers less than 10 are
words.
Numbers 10 or more are
numbers.
Words not numbers begin a
sentence.
Be consistent in lists of
numbers.
Numbers less than 1 begin
with
A
LTEX
Guangyong (GY) Zou, Ph.D.
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
and
Robarts Clinical Trials of Robarts Research Institute
Zou, GY (Western)
Biostatistics 9510A
September 24, 2013
1/9
equation display
Display an equation when it
need to be numb
Biostatistics 9510A: Biostatistical Research Methods
Guangyong (GY) Zou, Ph.D.
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
and
Robarts Clinical Trials of Robarts Research Institute
Zou, GY (Western)
Biostatistics 9510A
December 5, 2013
1 / 262
Chapter 1-2
Statistics: Overview
GY Zou
gzou@robarts.ca
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics
Robarts Research Institute
University of Western Ontario
Sept 11, 2012
The lady tasting tea: P-value
The lady tasting tea: P-value
At a summer tea party in Cambridge,
Topic 11 Linear Correlation
Scatterplot graph of paired sample data (x, y) with the independent variable (X) on the xaxis and the dependent variable (Y) on the y-axis, both variables must be quantitative can
connected to the same subject (known as bivaria
Topic 6 Normal Distribution
Normal Distribution density curve of a continuous probability distribution, used with
p (proportions) or with (means) when is unknown (will talk about this later in
confidence intervals and hypothesis tests)
For a variable to h
Topic 9 Single-sample Hypothesis Tests
Hypothesis Test standard procedure for testing a claim about a population property/
parameter
One-sampled comparing a sample value/statistic to a larger population whose
parameters are assumed to be known
In the hypo
Topic 4 Probability
Probability the likelihood/chance that a given event will occur
Procedure an experiment/action that will trigger the event
Event outcome (or collection of outcomes) for a particular procedure, a simple event cannot be
broken down furth
Chapter 4
Discrete Probability Distribution
4.2 Random Variables
Random Variable: is a variable (typically represented by x) that has a single numerical value,
determined by chance, for each outcome of a procedure. They can be discrete or continuous
Proba
Topic 2 Study Design
Subjects individual elements that are being studied, experimental units
Variable (X) characteristic that can take on different values/status,
Treatment group of subjects that have a modified variable(s), typically the group of most
in
Biol/Stats 2244B Sample Test 1 Questions
Question1.
A psychological survey asks subjects to rate their level of happiness on a scale from 1 (least happy) to
7 (most happy). Which term best describes the resulting data?
A.
census data
B.
nominal data
C.
ra
2244B Sample Sample Test 2 Questions
Biol/Stats 2244A Test 2 Questions
1. Suppose that two meteorological experts, A and B, independently provide simple weather forecasts of
rain or no rain for the next day. They do this for 100 days, after which it is fo
Topic 1 Sampling
Science study of nature/the natural world, use of the observation and the scientific method
Statistics tool for analyzing raw data for objectiveness
Observation ! Hypothesis ! Experiment/Study ! Data/Results !Use statistics to
determine v
Topic 13 One-factor ANOVA
Background
ANOVA ANalysis Of VAriance, used to partition and analyze variation in a continuous variable
in multiple (3 or more) populations, method of performing hypothesis testing on multiple
treatment populations means (paramet
Biology Lecture 22
Human Population growth
-Humans have an exponential growth while most K-selected species show logistic growth
-a possible reason is because we havent reached our carrying capacity, we have access
to technology and modify our environment
Biology Lecture 20
Read 45.3-45.5
Virulence and transmission mode
-Transmission mode hypothesis: optimal virulence depends on how the parasite moves between
host individuals
-For any given parasite, there is an optimal level of virulence (associated with
Biology Lecture 13
Genetic Variation
-Genetic variation is critical to populations (for conservation); species cannot adapt to a changing
environment unless it contains sufficient genetic variation
-dominance status of an allele describes its effect on th