September 22, 2016
Nicias proposes that courage is in fact certain kind of wisdom. Courage is knowing what is to
be dreaded. The fearful and what is to be daed in all cases.
In ordinary english: courage is knowing what you should
Zeno & Parmenides (most influential & famous pre-Socratic) w/ Socrates According to Parmenides: all is one (in some sense). Zeno (student of Parmenides), w/ argument in defense of Parmenides' view. Argument via reductio ad absurdem: those who
"Idea of the Good" not simply our idea of it. Forms are not ideas (not in one's head; not concepts) Primary feature of superordinate idea of the Good is that it trancends/is above ousia (distinguished Forms); doesn't have a distinct nature (not necessaril
Does justice pay? Preparation for discussion.
Context: everyone wants what is beneficial to them. Goal is to try to figure out
whether justice is beneficial for us or not.
505d: with respect to justice and beauty, most people are content with
Book 4: virtuous person is one in which reason rules. Justice: reason ruling on behalf of all parts of soul. Book 8: aristocratic man in whom reason rules. How does this man differ from virtuous man? -Aristocratic man is philosopher, whereas virtuous pers
Plato - Timaeus
Forms still in play, though not explicitly mentioned as such.
Most influential work: kind of cosmology in it, (and later, an explicit continuation of
Timaeus: principle speaker (Pythagorean philosopher)
Owing to Pythagoras t
Parmenides: -From Campagna (possible that Plato made up meeting w/ young Socrates). -Not an Ionian, but a kind of watershed of history of whole story. -Has about 100 years of rich philosophy under his belt (before him). -Reflects on all this and argues th
Extreme fragmentary nature of evidence; sometimes only a few words, or even
one word remaining.
Many later authors discussing pre-Socratics are very hostile towards them and
critical of them; Aristotle highly critical of pre-Socratics;
Tripartite Soul: -Appetitive (moderation/temperance) -Rational (wisdom, caring for whole soul) -Spirited (courageous, supporting work of wise part) (only angry when rational part fails to overpower appetitive part). Justice pays/intrinsically desirable su
Search for justice. Primary focus is individual person/soul. Question addressed: whether justice pays, is there a point in being a good person. Recall Euthyphro: -Asking for Form of piety -However, no sense that Euthyphro wouldn't want to do
Option of escaping offered to Socrates, with arguments presented: thinking of ones wife
and children, ones friends being admonished for not helping, etc.
-One should value the good opinions of wise men and not those of the majori
Ancient Philosophy: Approx. 600BCE to 600CE
400-200BCE: Time of Plato & Aristotle
Hellenistic Philosophy: after Aristotle until around 200CE
-As well as platonists & aristotelians.
Use of latin in Hellenistic period (Gr
-Is virtue knowledge? How is it acquired and transmitted? -In Socrates' terms, sophists merely claim to be wise when in fact they aren't (pejorative sense). -Protagoras payed handsomely to teach, or transmit knowledge to young men, aiding them
No argument, just a description. According to Diotima, people using term Eros (sex, necessarily sexual) too narrowly. Love/Eros consists in forms of desire, not all sexual, but all deserving to be considered a part of Eros with the sexual part
Why do we need to be immaterial and immutable in order to know Forms?
-21st century objection: computer knowing what equality is.
-Why cant ones brain have this knowledge? It isnt immaterial, its a meat computer.
-Reductio ad absurdum argument: assume opp
Recollection Argument: -There are very mundane cognitive activities, but we couldn't engage in these activities without prior knowledge of Forms (before life). -Thus this knowledge is likely to have come from us before we were in our bodies. -So, focus on
How does the philosophy in this compared to the philosophies in Plato's other works? Context of Socrates' impending death sets stage for this dialogue. In The Apology, Socrates claims to be agnostic about the continuation of the soul after he dies
November 3, 2016
These are some of the most difficult passages Plato today and we're going to go through them
pretty quickly so jot questions for your TA's. It's going to lead you into the next section too.
1. Argument a
September 15, 2016
Question: Do I have to approve the topic I'm doing for our research assignment? Yes, I do
have to approve.
By Thursday of next week you have to find groups and come up with some topics of
investigation. You don
October 6, 2016
Second Round: Courage and Wisdom
This is a discussion of a new pair of virtues. This is the topic of the remainder of the dialogue
with some large extended discussions of two related points along the way; weakne