o Diets high in these vitamins and minerals are associated with a lower risk of
prostate cancer. However, it is not yet clear whether taking supplements in pill
form can reduce the risk. The best way to increas
Table 2. Diagnosis of diabetes
FPG 7.0 mmol/L
Fasting = no caloric intake for at least 8 hours
Casual PG 11.1 mmol/L + symptoms of diabetes
Casual = any time of the day, without regard to the interval since the last meal
How long should therapy for depression be continued? When is treatment considered a failure, and if
so, what happens next?
relieve symptoms (all patients)
initial response usually occurs within 2-4 weeks of achieving a
PPL #10: Depression and Anxiety Pre-Seminar Questions
Depression and Anxiety
1. What are the signs and symptoms of clinical depression? And Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)? How do they
differ in the elderly?
2. What are the drugs of choice in treating
3 basic classes of drugs to use in pain:
mild-moderate: non-opioid may be OK
neuropathic: adjuvant (but may want to optimize opioid first in oncology OR start both at same time in
Opoids 1st line in cancer pain, a
For ER+ and PR+ breast cancers,
growth can be stopped (does not cure!):
o post-menopausal women: tamoxifen, then aromatase inhibitor (interfering with the low levels of
estrogen that exist)
o pre-menopausal women: tamoxifen (stopping the ov
- What kinds of things do you worry about?
- Do you worry excessively about everyday things such as your family, health, work, or finances?
- Do friends or loved ones tell you that you worry too much?
- Do you have difficulty co
Glycemic targets must be targeted to specific patient (benefit of lowering A1C against risk of hypoglycemia)
1. Target for most pts
- A1c 7.0,
- fasting plasma glucose (8-hours) = 4.0-7.0 mmol/L
- 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose = 5.0-10.0mmol
Smoking appears to be protective for UC but associated with increased frequency of CD
UC: Assess for toxic megacolon: high fever, tachycardia, distended abdomen, dilated colon, increased WBC
Mild: <=4 stools/d, may have small amou
The hallmark of COPD is a
reduced FEV1:FVC ratio to less than 70%.
A postbronchodilator FEV1 that is less than 80% of predicted confirms the presence of airflow limitation that is not
An improvement in FEV1 of less than 12% after in
Goal of asthma control: US
- Chronic: lung function, symptoms, nighttime awakenings, and interference with normal activity prior to therapy.
- Acute: expiratory and inspiratory wheezing on auscultation, dry hacking cough, t