Vogel vs. the Skeptic
Descartes considers two sceptical hypotheses, the possibility that all of our experiences are radically
misleading dreams and the possibility that they are radically misleading hallucinations implanted in our
minds by an evil demon.
Personal Identity, Part 2
The Psychological Theory
It would be nice to have a theory of personal identity that has as many of the body theorys and
soul theorys respective virtues without their respective vices. Some think the psychological
theory fits the
Personal Identity, Part 1
There are two questions before us:
The Question of Personhood: What is a person?
The Question of Personal Identity Over Time: Under what circumstances is a person at a
later time the same person as a person at an earlie
What Makes Someones Life Go Best?
A plausible answer to this question would tell us what a human persons well-being consists in.
Thus: what makes someones life go best = what their well-being consists in. So.what makes
someones life go best?
Nagel on Death
Let us begin by assuming that biological death is the unequivocal and permanent end of our
existence . unsupplemented by any form of conscious survival (769).
If your view is that we are immortal, fine. But set this possibility aside. As Na
Kants Moral Theory
Kants Moral Psychology: Some Basics
When we perform intentional actions, something in our minds causes us to act. What are these causes?
Kants view is that there are three distinct kinds of psychological motivation, that is, three disti
Different cultures appear to have different moral codes. What conclusion should we draw from this?
Some think that a doctrine called moral relativism follows.
What Is Moral Relativism?
Moral relativism is the conjunction of three theses:
Final Examination Study Sheet
The final exam will be 3 hours long. It will feature a short answer section and a short essay
This section is worth 40 points out of 100. Eight of the ten questions below will appear on your
exam. Each w
Types of Value
The permissibility or impermissibility of
The goodness or badness of situations.
The virtuousness or viciousness of individual
From Mill to Kant
Mills theory is teleologicalit defines the
right in terms of the good.
Kants theory is deontologicalit defines the
good in terms of the right.
So Where Are We?
-Moral worth is the only intrinsic good.
-Moral worth is realized when
Free Will, Part 4
Compatibilists like Hume and Ayer reject the Argument from Determinism. But we saw that
compatibilist theories (arguably) fail to capture what we mean by free action.
Incompatibilist libertarians like Chisholm reject the Argument from In
Free Will, Part 3
Incompatibilism: If determinism is true, then we lack free will.
Hard Determinist incompatibilists think that since determinism is true, we lack free
will. We will have more to say about their views next week.
Free Will, Part 1
We think that at least sometimes we manage to act freely. What is free will?
Two plausible necessary conditions on acting freely:
ChoiceOne acts freely only if one has the power to act otherwise.
ControlOne acts freely only if one has th
The Problem of Evil
The problem of evil is the philosophical problem of reconciling the existence of Godconstrued ,
once more, in accord with the standard monotheistic conceptionwith the existence of evil.
Put simply: if an omnibenevolent being exists, th
The Ontological Argument1
The Ontological Argument was originally formulated by St. Anselm (1033-1109), a medieval
philosopher and Christian theologian. It is designed to convince the Fool, who has said in his heart
that there is no God (Ps. 13: 1), that
Skepticism is the view that we lack knowledge, that we do not know things we may think we know.
There are many forms of skepticism. Three important forms are:
Skepticism about the past: We do not know any propositions about the past (e.g., that
Moore vs. the Skeptic
The Skeptical Argument from Knowledge Requires Certainty
Recall the certainty-based skeptical argument we drew from Descartess First Meditation:
Our evidence for the external world propositions we believe does not guarantee that
Chalmers and the Matrix as Metaphysics
A sceptical hypothesis is any hypothesis one cannot rule out that would make false most of ones
external world beliefs if it obtained.
The Matrix Hypothesis is the hypothesis that one is in a matrixan artificially de
Hick on the Problem of Evil
Hick on Moral Evil
Moral evil is evil resulting from human actions. Hick makes the following argument:
Something is a person only if it is genuinely free.
Something is genuinely free only if it can choose to
We think we know many things. Well, what is knowledge? And do we really know as much as we think
These questions are especially pressing because there are argumentsso-called skeptical arguments
that purport to show that we know little if
Personal Identity, Part 3
For now, set aside the soul theory. (We will come back to it later.) The body theory locates personal
identity over time in the living bodys (or functioning brains) identity over time. The psychological
continuity theory we arriv
Free Will, Part 2
Compatibilists, remember, believe that we can have free will even if determinism is true. They think
that once we get clear on what we really mean by free will we will see that our having free will is
perfectly compatible w
.which actions are morally right and which are
.which states of affairs are good and which are
.which character traits are virtuous and which
Dont Be a Jerk.
Divine Command Theory
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) argues for a moral theory now known as utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism says that what you morally ought to do is what will promote the greatest happiness of
the greatest number of people. As Mill puts
Why Be Moral?
In Book II of Platos Republic, Glaucon and his brother Adeimantus challenge Socrates to defend
justice. By justice they mean at least being moral: performing morally right actions and avoiding
morally wrong actions.
Sider- time flows
Time is like
- Implication: time
travel is possible
- Transeunt and
- Agent as prime
- Inclination without
-Human language vs.
- Universal Grammar and
- Parameters, principles,
- Poverty of stimulus
-For lexicon too
-A priori knowledge
truths of meaning
(Fred and the two reds)
-Mary the color deprived
Searle The Turing Test
-Intelligence as symbol
-Formal language =
symbols and rules
-Syntax and semantics
-Mind has semantic
- Chinese room illustrat
30th January, 2014
Inside cave: copy/ image
What we usually mean by
reality is sensible realm and
are physical objects
Shadow and figurines
-Sensible qualities -> objects
-Their essi est percipi
-Error of common sense: