Summa Theologica: Critical Summary
Quila Toews - 997556201
Aquinas states that lust, focused on venereal matter, is a mortal sin. Any sexual
act is lustful, and thus unnatural and perverse, if the intention is not reproduction (A1, I
answer that). Lust is
The Five Sexes (& more)
-For Fausto-Sterling, recognizing 5 sexes should be the beginning:
-Based on gonadal & external anatomical sex
-Multi-dimensional space in sense of various measurable factors
What is true intersex:
-Sax says that F-S
Nagel, Solomon, & Goldman
Nagel rejects reproductive model (reproduction not part of sexual desire).
-Still seeks an essence of sex on the phenomenological level (conscious
-You can by introspection tell what sex is really about.
If sex is.
-To show trust, a joint chequing account is better than sex; though bondage &
domination might be even better in the moment.
-As a paradigm of disinterested (absence of concern for ones own interest, not
the same as unintereste
Sex & Gender: Dimorphism & Polymorphism
Sex & Gender Differentiation
Twelve Step Program:
Gametic Sex (sex cells: sperm & ova) (large, small anisogametic species)
-Size polarization is an ESS (evolutionary stable strategy).
-Comparable to contrast between
Novelty vs. Stability:
-Proven winner & lottery points are valid, but only if conditions stay the same.
-Se is like buying many different lottery tickets.
Two fold cost paying for itself:
-Two parents better than one if they more than double offsprings ch
Showtime series: Masters of Sex (sex research team)
Week 1 Summary:
-Characterizations of philosophy
-Applying philosophy to sex raised standard questions
-Three domains of sex
Philosophy, Sex, and Feminism:
I) What counts as sexual?
Aquinas & Natural Law:
With natural objects, the question of function becomes very complicated.
Statistical normality = normative norm
Whatever happens most is good.
Intension: number of specs
Extension: referring to smaller number of things with specs
WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?
Example: Ethics without God?
- you cannot be good unless you believe in God
- If there is no God, then everything is permitted
- What if we say: Whatever is moral is what God commands
- What if God ordered you to kill a child?
Sex & Morality
Specialness of Erotic Sex:
-Sexuality unique in sense that it sets off intense & diametrically opposed
-Everyone can find some sexual practices/situations very disgusting and others
-Working Hypothesis: anything so
Deontology: In Kantian Mode
-What, as a rational being, must be done
-Fundamental principle: Categorical Imperative (work out what is right by thinking
about it rationally; what any rational being would do is what one must do)
-Hypothetical Imperative: ba
Prostitution & Pornography:
-Multiplicity of its Meanings (Intentionalized)
Varieties of Prostitution:
Prostitution not a single practice: E.g.
-Temple prostitution (in special class of their own)
-Medieval Europe (before clampd
Defining Porn: Thick (charged w/ evaluative connotations) or Thin definition?
Defining Porn: Some Thick Definitions
-Rape is the practice, pornography is the theory
-Portrayal of women dehumanized as sexual objects, things, or commodities
Some Framework Assumptions
Some Background Questions of Political Theory:
What is the state for? Serve & Protect:
Planning for collective good (only State can make decisions to avoid conflict/stalls).
-Need substantive theory of human natur
Objectification & Derivatization
More About Theories of Love:
What is theory of love supposed to do exactly?
What is a theory?
-Collect observations, hopefully being factual.
-Construct theory that is:
. simpler than merely listing facts
. able to explain
Sex and Love:
Kantian Morality Without Sex Phobia
Categorical imperative 1st formulation: one should always act in such a way
as to think ones guiding principle be applicable to whole world; hard to apply
directly, demands rationality for differences to j
Nature or Nurture?
-Facts about chemistry above suggest nature
-Limerence has been observed in over 170 societies, w/ no gender differences.
-But culture can change chemistry!
-Any culture has an ideology of love, decreeing how 4 systems are
supposed to r
Websites: sex.serchuk.ca & portal.utoronto.ca
Sal, or the 120 Days of Sodom (1975)
Recap: Consent in Toronto
Recap: Consent & The Law
Two months later K.D. filed a police report claiming she
Philosophy, Sex and Feminism
(1) What counts as sexual desire and sexual activity?
Scenario One: A woman is manipulating anothers vagina
Scenario Two: A man is watching other men play football
We think that One is sexual, and Two is not.
- Rhythym method of sex: you abstain from sex during the times when you can have a
- this is not bad; because you are okay with the fact that you might be a mother/ father
Aquinas and Natural law
- the key argument underlying the discussion of sex:
The Biology of Sex:
Biology as Economics:
- economics ts biology, better than it ts economics
- the economic point of view consists in evaluation an action in terms of the
value of its consequences
- when you calculate the costs and benets of something yo
The moral of our survey of biological evolution:
- ask not: why this individual deviates from type, as why individuals cluster into
- [Cf Newton: Dont ask why the arrow keeps moving, ask why it stops]
this simple reversal of this question is Newtons
Erotic Sex: Plain and Fancy
1. Statistics, Normality, Fact and Value
- the mode of the bell curve: the lumpy part
an average is ambiguous and polyvalent and polysemic
- the mean (total divided by # of individuals/ items)
- the median (as many individuals
Sex and Morality:
1. The Specialness of Sex
- sometimes your own goals may coincide with the goal of the dissemination of your
- when you think about your own goals, this may be the opposite thing that you want
- your goals vs. goals of nature
In his attempt at the formation of a definition of sexual desire, Alan Goldman wishes to clearly
encapsulate the lowest common denominator of sexuality. His view on sexual desire and activity
does not carry any moral implication, and he m
Office hours: 3-5:30pm on Mondays
Role of Philosophy
Some basic moral intuitions dont depend on religious belief, this suggests two initial
- Philosophy holds nothing sacred (there is nothing in philosophy that is beyond