Reading #1/Williams: utilitarianism makes no distinction between positive &
-Too demanding because it requires extreme impartiality with regards to ones
own projects vs. others.
What about agent-relative permission? Preferring cer
Morality & War
To be completely just, a war has to satisfy all of these conditions (not that they
Resort to war (Ius ad bellum; deciding to go to war):
Legitimate Authority (war declared by political authority of aggressor)
-Implies that war
October 21 2016
TA Jeremy Davis
An Argument Against Expressivism
One of the main differences between Moores non-naturalist view on morality and
Humes expressionist view is that while Moore believes that moral truths exist, expere
PHL 275 H/F: INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS
SCHEDULE OF READINGS
All readings are from the xeroxed coursepack.
Week 1 (Sept. 9): Psychological Egoism
Plato, The Ring of Gyges, from The Republic
Joel Feinberg, Psychological Egoism
Week 2 (Sept.
TA Jeremy Davis PHL275
Helping our Local Community or Contribute to Foreign Aid?
The United Nations (UN) reports that we need 30 billion US dollars to alleviate world
hunger from the 795 million people who are suffering today (Wo
What is psychological egoism?
Is a doctrine that says that, as a matter of psychological necessity, people only do what is
good for themselves. We decide our action based on how much it benefits our own
beings, and how much pleasure
Prompt 8. Euthanasia
05 December 2016
Word Count: 1876
Interpreting Euthanasia Doctrines: Where Rachels Went Wrong
The American Medical Association (AMA) has produced a doctrine pertaining to
euthanasia which states
PHL 275 F2015
WEEK TWO CLASS TWO
last time talking about relativism, which is the view that there are no universal moral
truths; instead, whats right in a culture or for a person depends on what that culture or person
thinks is right; cultural vs. person
PHL 275 F2015
WEEK ONE CLASS ONE
skip course description for now
text coursepack and thats all you need; Alicos and may have to wait if
you dont buy now; $60.00 plus tax; easy to carry, bring to lectures,
tutorials PLEASE DO
Ross: What Makes Right Actions Right? Denon
Prima Facie Duty
Duty over things equal
Tendency to be ones duty
Like force acting on body
Duty as equality
Duty all things considered
Like bodys fina
What is good in itself/intrinsically, not simply as a means or for its consequences.
Duties to promote good consequences, but also duties not to intend bad
consequences (deontological distinctions). Also, things good regardless of duties.
-Not normative (what is right or wrong)
-What are we doing when deciding what is right or wrong.
-If rightness and wrongness are properties, what are these like?
-How do moral truths relate to non-moral truths, and how do we arrive at
x is wrong = x-ing by anyone whatever his attitude to x-ing. Boo!
-Expressing negative attitude towards x-ing. The expression has no truth-value.
2) x is wrong = everyone, whatever your attitude to x-ing. Dont x
Euthyphro/Divine Command Theory:
Relationship of morality and religion, thought to be intimately intertwined.
If God is dead, then everything is permitted; without religion there is no morality?
One Thesis: rewards and punishments in afterlife as catalyst
-No universal truths/values, with values being subjective to individuals and societies.
-The values we accept or believe in are different.
-From this difference, we can infer that there isnt a single right answer.
-This implies thats pro
Challenges to everyday understanding of ethics.
-Assumed to be true (for example by Glaucon (Plato) in The Republic)
-People desire only their own good (entirely selfish)
-People desire many things as a means, but the ultimate end is
Mackie - Subjectivity of Values/Moral Skepticism
Mackie & Hume:
-Both deny objective moral truths.
Many philosophers believed moral judgements are objectively true.
Even moral terms imply this belief.
According to Mackie, our moral judgements are intended
Normative Ethics: general principles applied to judge individual moral acts.
Utilitarianism: greatest happiness principle (simplest)
-Right act always one that results in greatest possible happiness, or greatest
surplus of happiness over unhappiness, for
Pluralism (Intrinsic Goods) - Ross
Conscientiousness (desire to do whats right because its right)
Loving the good (desire to bring about whats good either because its good or
for properties that make it good), hating the evil.
Highlights distinctions between doing & allowing, and intending & foreseeing.
Rachels (critique of current medical practices):
-Voluntary vs. involuntary euthanasia, question of consent.
-No moral difference between active & pas
PHL 275 F2015
WEEK TWO CLASS ONE
tutorials start Friday, everyone registered? go early for rooms; can discuss both
psychological egoism and this weeks topic
thats a second challenge to everyday understanding of morality: moral relativism
this is the vi
WEEK THREE CLASS TWO
talking about relation of morality to religion, and especially the view that morality
depends on religion, so that without religious basis morality collapses; If God is dead,
everything is permitted
one version of that
WEEK SIX ONLY CLASS
essays due on Friday, turnitin.com or dropbox with extra materials (and name of tutorial
leader), late penalty; no tutorials this week; TA meeting Friday at 3:00
normative ethics, normative ethical theory, starting with
WEEK SEVEN CLASS ONE
planning to have essay marks posted by Friday, Nov. 1
last week discussed utilitarianism, which says the morally right act is always the one
that will result in the greatest total happiness for all affected; one common
PHL 275 F2013
WEEK TEN ONLY CLASS
discussing theories of whats good, first hedonism and then desire-fulfilment theory,
where the second (in Parfit selection) seems open to variants of the same objections as the first,
i.e. about morally vicious pleasures
WEEK THIRTEEN CLASS ONE
essays due today, sorry about turnitin; any problems? one student emailing; class on
end with last applied ethics topic war; I write about, teach 378; obviously highly
relevant in recent years, with wars i
WEEK THIRTEEN CLASS TWO
exam format; also course evaluations
discussing the specific view about the ethics of war called just war theory; intermediate
between pacifism and realism, because it says some wars/acts in war are morally permissi
WEEK TWELVE CLASS ONE
course evaluations online; Im away Wednesday, Benjamin will give the lecture (will
still be online); no office hours Wednesday but available this afternoon; TA meeting times on
website; last tutorial this week, none ne