Chapter 3: Diagnosis and Assessment
1. Be able to describe the purposes of diagnosis and assessment.
2. Be able to distinguish between the different types of reliability and validity.
3. Be able to identify the basic features, strengths, an
Personality disorders - Axis II Heterogeneous group of disorders Longstanding, pervasive, and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience Deviate from the expectations of a person's culture Impair social and occupational functioning anosognosia -
Old Age and Brain Disorders Dementia Gradual deterioration of intellectual abilities i.e. clinicians cannot diagnose dementia upon first examination! Step wise vs. slowly progressive two paths of deterioration used to differentiate in different dementia s
Somatoform disorders - Bodily symptoms that suggest a physical defect or dysfunction, but no physiological basis can be found Patients vary dramatically case by case Dissociative disorders - Disruptions of consciousness, memory, and identity Inter-rater r
Anxiety - Unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension Stress Worry Inability to relax Fear of worst happening Beck Anxiety Inventory - standardized test Most common disorder, 31% will be having it in life time, 18% at any given year Highly comorbid - ofte
Mood Disorders and Suicide
General Characteristics of Mood Disorders
Mood disorders involve disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of depression
to the elation and irritability of mania. Mood disorders are often associated with othe
Somatic Symptom Disorders and Dissociative Disorder
In the absence of a physical or medical cause, a somatoform disorder is considered. One of
the biggest challenges for physicians and for mental health personnel is to determine
Many cultures are preoccupied with eating. Dieting to lose weight is common, and the desire of many people,
especially women. Eating disorders first appeared in the DSM in 1980, as one subcategory of disorders beginning
Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Post Traumatic Disorders
Anxiety- unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension. Typically anxiety is regarded as having two distinguishable
components: the physiological and the cognitive. The physiological comp
Chapter 2- Current Paradigms and Integrative Approaches
A paradigm is a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to conceptualize and study a
subject, how to gather and interpret relevant data, even how to think about a particular
Difference between dependence and abuse are not clear
Substance Dependence - minims of 3 Symptoms Tolerance - when present, addiction Increase of dosage in order to produce the same effect Effects of the drug becomes less per same quantity Withdrawal - wh
GID Majority of GID cases are diagnosed as GIDNOS (GID not otherwise specified) Person has symptoms that meet much of GID description Unique features that do not fit the precise criteria of GID i.e might border on fetish and transvestite GID is associated
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Jarred can be diagnosed with schizophrenia based on the criteria of the DSM-V.
In summary of the above case study, we know that Jar
What is Abnormal Behavior? EXAM - remember these! Statistical Infrequency - often good technique of spotting psychopaths may not be helpful when base rate is unknown Violation of norms - behavior that would make anxious for those observing it often violat
Paradigm - Conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works exam Biological paradigm Psychoanalytical approach Humanist approach Classical Conditioning Cognitive approach Paradigm dictates how one would approach / assess / treat subject Bio
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV-TR)
DSM-IV Def. of mental disorder
A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that
occurs in an individual
includes present distress or disability, or
The Research Methods of Abnormal Psychology
Historical and biographical information on a single individual
Providing detailed description
Case study as evidence
it often can te
Clinical Assessment Procedures
Reliability and Validity in Assessment
Reliability - consistency of measurement
Test-retest reliability - same test should result in similar result
Alternate-form reliability - alternate form of test, but should get sim
Guest Speaker - "Nancy"- bipolar disorder / amnesia / suicidal started from insomnia suicidal fantasies / desire next was how to commit suicide death becomes biological need for her she was very scared of pain and death so she decided to drink 60 sleeping
Eating Disorder Clinical Description Anorexia nervosa - Refusal to maintain a normal body weight less than 85% Intense fear of gaining weight Fear is not reduced by weight loss Obsessive exercise, starving Distorted sense of body shape, self-esteem is lin
Schizophrenia - Psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior Disordered thinking in which ideas are not logically related, faulty perception and attention, flat or inappropriate affect, and bizarre disturbances
Sexual Disorders and Gender Dysphoria
When our sexual fantasies or desires begin to affect us or others in unwanted or harmful ways, they begin to
qualify as abnormal.
Gender Identity Disorder and Gender Dysphoria
Our sense of ourselves as male
Research Methods in the study of Abnormal Behavior
Science and Scientific Methods
Science is the pursuit of systematized knowledge through observation. Thus the terms, which comes from the Latin
scire, to know, refers both to a method (the syste
Classification and Diagnosis
Diagnosis is a critical aspect of the field of abnormal psychology. It is essential for professionals to be able to
communicate accurately with one another about the types of cases they are treating or studying. Furt
Konstantine Zakzanis, Phd, C.psych
Current Paradigms and
The Role of Paradigms
Conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works
PSYB32 Exam Notes (Lectures)
- Will cover chapters 11,12,13,16
- December 6th 2-4 PM
Lecture 8: Chapter 11: Schizophrenia
No guest speaker.
Psychotic disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion, and
.n_ 17. I.
Name:<5:i:3'? ' Date;
I The purpose ofois 1V is to
A) identify personaiity disorders.
13) determine acute disturbance.
Q) evaluate environmental and psychosocial problems. - .
(13) account for medical problems affecting mental disorders.
Chapter 1: Introduction: Historical and Scientific Considerations
1. Be able to explain the meaning of stigma as it applies to people with mental illness.
2. Be able to describe and compare different definitions of abnormality.
3. Be able t
Chapter Three: Clinical Assessment:
Reliability & Validity in Assessment:
RELIABILITY: consistency of measurement.
- the degree to which two independent observers agree on something.
- the extent to which
Chapter 1:Introduction: Definitional and Historical Considerations, and
Canadas Mental Health Systems.
What is considered abnormal behaviour?:
1) Statistical Infrequency: distribution of intelligence among adults illustrates
a normal or bell-shaped curve.