Occams Razor and the Identity Theory
It seems to me that science is increasingly giving
us a viewpoint whereby organisms are able to be
seen as physico-chemical mechanisms: it seems
that even the behavior of man himself will one
day be explicable i
Paper 3: the identity theory
Submitted by: Yi (Summer) Tao
Student number: 1003174021
TA: Elena Derksen
Mind and body problem is about how mind and body interact. Smart made a
theory based on Occam Razers principle, which solved the conflict. But there
Your task is to write a philosophical essay on one of the following three topics:
Why does Wolf think that moral sainthood isnt necessarily an ideal way of life? Is she right?
Defend your answer.
Suppose you are deep
1. Paley: The Local Argument from Design (for Gods existence)
1) Note: Resemblance of natural objects and creation of intelligence =>
these parts of the world must be creations of intelligence
(P1L) At least some natural objects (e.g.
The Gettier Problem
K = JTB?
Here, as a reminder, is the JTB analysis of (factual) knowledge:
S knows P if and only if
(i) P is true,
(ii) S believes P, and
(iii) S is justified in believing P.
As we have seen, Gettiers cases seem to show that this analys
Skepticism is the view that we lack knowledge, that we do not know things we may think we know.
There are many forms of skepticism. Three important forms are:
Skepticism about the past: We do not know any propositions about the past (e.g., that
The Political Compass
A U T H O R I TA R I A N
Personal Identity, Part 2: Psychological Theories
The Psychological Theory
It would be nice to have a theory of personal identity that has as many of the body theorys and
soul theorys respective virtues without their respective vices. Some think the psych
Personal Identity, Part 1: Body and Soul
There are two questions before us:
The Question of Personhood: What is a person?
The Question of Personal Identity Over Time: Under what circumstances is a person at a
later time the same person as a pers
Paper 1: Objections to Cosmological Argument
Submitted by Yi Tao
Student number: 1003174021
(P1) Every event must have a cause, then there is a backward
progression of causes.
(P2) If there is no end to this backward progression, the progress
The Ontological Argument
The Ontological Argument was originally formulated by Anselm (1033-1109), a medieval
philosopher and Christian theologian. It is designed to convince the Fool, who has said in his heart
that there is no God (Ps. 13: 1), that God e
Hobbes on Political Authority
The Problem of Political Authority
We live in Canada and are all subject to Canadian law. In particular, we are all subject to the power
of the Canadian state and its government. This power is coercive. For example, if you do
The Argument for Skepticism in
(P1) Our evidence for the external world
propositions we believe does not
guarantee that any of them is true.
(C1) We are not evidentially certain of any
propositions about the external world.
(P2) Knowledge requir
PHL101Y1Y Introduction to Philosophical Problems
Tutorials: See below
This course will introduce you to philosophy. Its main purpose is to acquaint you with the kinds of questions
philosophers ask and to impart an unde
0. Let us begin by distinguishing necessary and sufficient conditions:
A proposition P is a sufficient condition for a proposition Q when Ps being true is all by
itself enough for Q to be true.
Example: That Fido is a dog is sufficient for his
.which actions are morally right and which are
.which states of affairs are good and which are
.which character traits are virtuous and which
Dont Be a Jerk.
What we want, then, is a theor
The Mind-Body Problem
What is the nature of mind? What, most
fundamentally, are minds and mental states?
What is the nature of body? What, most
fundamentally, are bodies and bodily states?
How are our minds and bodies related to one
In his piece Does God Exist? (from your course book), Ernest Nagel discusses a number of
arguments for Gods existence. One of these arguments, an argument known as the cosmological
argument, is one we have not discussed in lecture. Here is
Value and Normativity
Different Kinds of Values/Norms
Moral Value and Normativity
The permissibility or impermissibility of
The goodness or badness of situations.
The virtuousness or viciousness of in
Your task is to write a philosophical essay on one of the following two topics:
Explain the Occams Razor-based argument Smart makes for his identity theory. Is that
argument successful at establishing his theory? If you thin
The Mind-Brain Identity Theory
Let us assume that Ryle was right to reject substantivalism: to have a mind is not to be somehow
in possession of a mental substance, whether material or spiritual. So what is it, then, to have a
Descartess Interactionist Dualism
Descartes argues for an interactionist dualist solution to the mind-body problem. There are two
parts to this view, the dualist part and the interactionist part.
According to Descartes
Free Will, Part 1
We think that at least sometimes we manage to act freely. What is free will?
Two plausible necessary conditions on acting freely:
ChoiceOne acts freely only if one has the power to act otherwise (to choose other
The Existence of God
The issue: Does God exist?
There are many conceptions of God (or Gods). We will work with the standard monotheistic conception
The standard monotheistic conception: There exists a unique supremely perfect being that somehow
Introduction to Philosophy
What is Philosophy?
A hard question! Indeed, what is philosophy? is itself a philosophical question.
A response Im partial toits far from perfect but it will help us get startedinvolves two
separate distinctions between differen
Semester 2 Philosophy
Part 1 Chapter 6
Imagination is the first beginning of all of them imagination is a reflection of the sensory
creates love, hate, contempt etc.
Hobbes wants to explain that all passions/ emotions is reflective of the society yo
W HAT IS PHILOSOPHY?
 What is this thing called philosophy? Some of the normal ways of nding out dont
work: the ordinary or common uses of the term; its etymology [ + ]; even its
dictionary denition(s) here is the denition from the Merriam-Webster Dicti
Tutorial #2 - Crito & Republic
Major controversy in the Crito and the Apology
- Keep good morals in: APOLOGY (born in the state, he has obligations - moral
- Asked to bring Leon (his friend) during his prosecution and didn't because
Alternatives to Substance Dualism about Mind and Body
Ryle vs. Substance Dualism
Ryle rejects Cartesian substance dualism. He scornfully dubs it the myth of the Ghost in the
One of his reasons for rejecting Descartess view is that he thinks the t