Week 13: Climate change, global warming
The earths climate is in a state of dynamic balance, reflecting complex interaction of atmospheric
and hydrospheric processes, driven by the energy of solar radiation.
Anthropogenic (human) intervention has created:
Weeks 4: Volcanoes
Slide 2: Volcanoes are the most visible product of the process of melting in the Earths interior.
This map shows the location of the worlds major volcanoes. They occur in three main settings:
1) Along subduction zones
Slides 2, 3:
Earthquakes indicate rock deformation. Bending (folds) and fracturing (faults)
This deformation occurs because rocks are under stress and suddenly give way, generating shock
waves that travel through the Earth.
Week 2 Earth systems and cycles
Lecture 02A: Plate Tectonics
A plate-tectonic interpretation of the Middle East, using a photograph taken from a satellite. The
Arabian continent is moving northward relative to Africa. This has opened up the Red S
Lecture 01-A: General Introduction
Important note: In this and all subsequent lecture notes, important terms that you should
know about are underlined.
What is this class all about? It is about how the earth affects our lives, on a daily basis as
ESS 103F: Course lecture and test schedule (Fall 2015)
Week 1 (September 14, 16) Our place in the environment and humans as agents of change.
The Earth: its structure and composition: rocks and minerals. Our place in the environment and
humans as agents o
ESS 103 - Week 9-Metals, minerals and
METALS, MINERALS AND MINING
Iron-staining gossan, characteristic of surface weathering of many mineral deposits
A mineral resource is any element, compound, mineral,
rock or aggregate that can be
Week-6: Erosion, landslides and mass wasting
Example of problems that can be caused by rockfalls and landslides. The Sea-to-Sky Highway was
a critical part of the infrastructure servicing the Whistler-Blackcomb area during the 2010 Winter
Slides 2, 3: definitions and terms
Definition of tsunami: a long ocean wave generated by sudden displacement of the sea floor
Also termed seismic sea waves.
Incorrectly termed tidal waves, but they have nothing to do with tides.
Week 12: Alternative energy sources:
Coal, Nuclear power, and Renewables
Slide 2: Predictions of energy supply in the future
Conventional oil and gas will begin to decline in availability within a few decades, but new
technologies are bringing unconventio
ESS 103 - Week 12-Alternative energy
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES
The future of energy
ESS 103 - Week 12-Alternative energy
Energy use in the United States
Note total dominance by non-renewable sources
(from The Blue Planet)
Week 10: Petroleum:
Typical deep-water offshore drilling rig. Most large pools of oil and gas on land have now been
found, and most exploration carried out in the hopes of finding giant oil and gas fields is being
carried out offshore and in very
Lecture 8A: Global distribution of water, principles of groundwater, problems of drought
and overuse of water
Where is the worlds water?
There is not nearly as much fresh water as most people think, and Canada does NOT have an
Week 9: Mineral resources
Gossan: This is the brown stain on the weathered surface of rocks that contain iron- and
magnesium-bearing minerals. It is the first sign of possible mineralization, searched for by
Slide 2: terminology
Week 7B: Floods, Coastal Processes, Hurricanes
Rivers have floodplains that flood!
River valleys consist of channels bordered by levees (raised banks) and floodplains
floodplains are constructed by deposition of fine-grained sediment durin
Week 7A: Landslides and mass wasting
Origins of rock falls and landslides
weak materials underlying slope.
materials rendered weaker by water saturation
presence of joints or fractures, may be widened by repeated freeze-thaw (frost-heave process)
ESS 103 - 08A-Water-1
Where is the Worlds water?
97.5% is in the oceans*
2.5% is fresh water,
- 74% is in ice caps,
- 25% is groundwater.
- Less than 1% is in surface rivers and lakes
Some countries have an abundance of surface wate
ESS 103 - 08B-Water-2
Pollution, waste disposal,
problems of urbanization
Water problems are becoming widespread
National Post, 31 May 2004
Globe and Mail, 1 June 2000
Boil-water directives are in place in
across the c
Chapter 12- Earthquakes and Earths Interior
What is an Earthquake? An earthquake occurs when energy stored in rocks is suddenly released in the form
of mechanical energy, transmitted through rocks as vibrations called seismic waves. Most earth quakes are
Chapter 6, Volcanoes and Volcanic Hazards
Pyroclastic flow, a swirling, hot cloud of dangerous gases, volcanic ash, and angular rock fragments.
Lava Dome formed when, magma rising through the throat of the volcano collected on top of the vent.
18. Energy and mineral resources (sand, gravel, stone make up 40% of material consumption).
Oil and natural gas (together called petroleum) is an organic substance with hydrogen bonds (hydrocarbons),
form when sediment organic rich deposited, buried, and
Chapters 4.14, 18.10-18.14
4.14 How are minerals used in society?
Minerals are used in their natural form or extract key elements from the minerals.
1) How are minerals used for their chemical components? One of the major uses of minerals is as a
Chapter 3 Plate Tectonics
Much of ocean floor is moderately deep 3-5 km with fairly smooth surface, abyssal plains (few earth quakes).
Mid-ocean ridges are broad symmetrical ridges that cross the ocean basin (2-3km), east pacific rise and
Atlantic. They a
Chapter 13 Climate, weather, and their influences
Weather is a daily description of the temperature, pressure and precipitation in a specific place. Weather and
climate are response to global circulation of water and air.
Himalaya formed when India and As
238 and 235 (break down more rapidly but less abundant). Steam released does not contain radioactive.
2 Groundwater, uranium in between (roll-front).
Uranium ore deposit by groundwater along unconformities.
Pipe or cone-sha
Coal formation (350 coniferous swaps, huge tress, ferns), peat, no o2, lignite, sub-bitumous, bituminous (drive sulfur and impurities such as methane out), Anthracite (less acid rain,
less impurities, more energy). 25cm-30meters. Advantage: used for elect