BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY GUIDE
Biotechnology: the science of using living organisms, or the products of living organ isms for human benefit or to benefit human surroundings - to make a product or solve
Antibiotics are substances produced
"If biotechnology is defined broadly, such as:"
The commercial use of naturally occurring or human- designed organisms (which includes viruses) or parts thereof, to produce a product or to affect a change in some other organism or material - all intended
Initial mRNA produced is the primary transcript!
Immature and not fully functional!
A series of modifications before primary transcripts are ready
for protein synthesis! RNA splicing!
Addition of a 5 cap!
The Road to Understanding DNA:
- In 1869 Friedrich identifies a substance in the nucleus of eukaryotes (nucleins) Protease
- In 1928 Fredrich experiments S cell pneumoniae bacterium (virulent) - proten and sugar
- In 1928 R cell pneumo
Infectious Disease: Two important factors
- Population density arising from domestication and;
- Close proximity to and interaction with, animals, which provides reservoirs for the multiplica tion and evolution of infectious agents.
- Human genetics and c
DNA & Forensics
- Forensics is the applications of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a
- DNA can be used to:
- Identify suspects.
- Exonerate suspects.
- Establish paternity.
- Identify people.
- Authenticate co
Essential Technique in Vector Recombinant DNA
1- Isolation and purification of DNA ( usually DNA which one is interested in inserting in a target organism.
Amplification of strands of DNA
Cutting the DNA and splicing a desired segment of DNA into it
Related genes: homologues
Ob codes for a protein hormone called leptin which is produced by fat cells and travels
through the bloodstream to the brain to regulate hunger essentially telling the brain
when the body is full.
Apoptosis - progra
Bacteriophages -viruses that infect bacterial cells
Recombinant DNA technology is commonly used to make gene cloning possible
and genetic engineering relies on recombinant DNA technology and gene cloning
to modify an organisms genome
Plasma membrane - a double layered structure of primarily lipids and proteins that
surround its outer surface.
Prokaryotic cells - do not have a nucleus. They include true bacteria and cyanobac teria.
Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cel
BIOTECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY, CHAPTER 1 (FOCUS 1.3, 1.4)
THREE RECENT WAVES OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE
(1) The Industrial Revolution and the development of the steam engine and related technologies
The rise of the factory;