THE NINE YEARS WAR, 1688-1697
-The Nine Years War was ignited by a limited surgical strike by the
>Philippsburg assault which began September 27 and ended
-This assault was designed(intended) to secure France's eastern
A New International Constitution
-The idea that the Peace of Westphalia(1648) is regarded as the
emergence of international relations.
>Negotiated in two separate peace conferences in Munster and
-It marked the spread of diplomatic establishmen
- Ideas tend to become practical, influence behaviours & actions, and
serve basic or personal interests.
- Restraint, and moderation of national ambitions were a common
theme in the years following the Peace of Utrecht.
-Britain's self-interest was to pro
Aims and Ambitions
-The defeat of the Habsburg Monarchy in the Thirty Years War
contributed to the revisions(e.g the clauses inserted) at the peace
conferences of Munster and Osnabruck and eventually the Peace of
-Peace of Westphalia marks a t
Origins of the Dutch War
-Throughout the 17th century, France regularly threatened her
-Louis needed an outlet to affirm his and France's ascendancy in
>Louis XIV decided to target the Dutch Republic.
-The Dutch War was one of
-The problem of the Spanish Succession would be an issue which
threatened European balance.
-The death of the King of Spain, Charles II, would threaten the peace
following The Nine Years War.
-Successors to the throne were not directly from the Spanish
-Anglo-French alliance nurtured international order and kept it viable.
>It had survived the War of the Polish Succession.
-France's restraint in the War of the Polish Succession ensured
Britain maintained peace.
-Pragmatic Sanction was the collective dip
There was a lot at stake in this war
- This conflict produced the 2 greatest warriors of all time:
> Duke of Marlborough (John Henry Churchill)
> Prince Eugene of Savoy
- 17 September 1701 There was an interval before the actual war
The First Treaty of Versailles
-The war lasted from 1756-1763.
-The war dealt a major blow to France's financial state, later acting as
a catalyst for reform which would spark the French Revolution.
-The signing of the First Treaty of Versailles caused as
- Especially in one regard, the Balance of Power proved functional it
allowed countries to gain power without breaking the system, allowing
a considerable change in the hierarchy
> New recruits to the hierarchy constituting international order
> The 18th
The Aim of the "Great Game"
-Males in pre-historic times were commonly victims of violence by
-Only 2% of the world population died as a result of wars throughout
the 20th century, as opposed to a staggering 66% in pre-historic