3 types of motor outputs
1) Skeletal muscle movement -somatic motor division
2) Neuroendocrine signals
3) Visceral response -autonomic division
Primary motor cortex-receive input from cerebellum and basal ganglia
Lecture: Nervous system
Quick review- down the concentration gradient, up/against the concentration gradient
Down the conc. Gradient the particles move across membrane until equilibrium is reached
-from region of high conc. To region of low conc. in other
CHAPTER 3: PG 80
REGENRATION OF NERVE FIBRES
Cut axons in PNS can regenerate
Remain in form of regeneration tube to guide regenerating fibre to its proper
Fibres in CNS are myelinated by olgiodendrocytes
Membrane potential !
- also means polarized electrically !
- exists in plasma membrane of all living cells !
Membrane Potential: !
-The difference in + and - charges along the thin layer of ICF and ECF membrane !
- separation of charges across the membr
O2 deficit and EPOC !
- start time and exercise time indicative to !
- takes a period of time to reach steady state- start using aerobic means (3 minutes)!
- exponential increase at beginning (anaerobic means) !
- when exercise stops we dont have an immed
CNS (5) Color Vision
Light has a wavelength the distance from one wave peak to the next
Different wavelengths correspond to different colors
The wavelength we normally see range from 400nm (violet) 700nm (red)
o We can see extremely powerful infrared li
Cellular Neuro (1) Transport Mechanism
Cell membrane: permeability depends on lipid solubility, and charge, and molecular size
Lipid-soluble molecules and gases diffuse through readily
Water-soluble, polar molecules and ions need the help of proteins (c
PSL300H Lecture 4
Essential roles of Ca2+ in systems physiology
Ca2+ Bone Bank
Regulation of plasma Ca2+ levels
Textbook reading: Silverthorn 7th ed. 743-751
(6th ed. 792-796) (5th ed. 772-777)
PSL300H Lecture 7: Adrenal gland
Pancreatic hormones case study
The structure of the Adrenal Cortex and Medulla
The role of the Medulla and Catecholamines
The role of Cortex and adrenal steroids:
DHEA and androstenedione, cortisol &
HIS: Homeostasis Integration Systems
Homeostasis Holding an internal environment, constant despite changing conditions
Regulation of intracellular ions (ICF): one of the things
our body defends most actively
Extracellular (ECF) c
Lecture 4: Fetal & Pre-pubertal development
Role of the Y chromosome
Regulation of puberty
Textbook reading: Silverthorn 7th ed. 801-808, 834 (6th
ed. 852-856, 5th ed. 829-834)
Case Study: Inabili
Essential role of HPA
Steroid Hormones & Reproduction
Part 2: Male Reproduction
Role of testis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles
Role of LH, FSH,
Lecture 2: Female reproductive system
How are oocytes produced
Components and regulation of the menstrual cycle
Activity of estrogens and progesterone
Causes of infertility & menopause
Textbook reading: Silverthorn 7th ed. 816-823
What is a system?
Set of nodes (objects)
Set of edges (connections)
To communicate and co-ordinate is to interact
Primary contact (direct, shaking hands)
Secondary message (a signal, phone call)
PSL300H Lecture 5
Water and ion balance
How is water distributed in the body?
How are daily water intake and excretion balanced?
How is urine formed?
How do hormones regulate fluid, Na+ and K+ balance?
When pancreas is releasing tons
of insulin, and it binds to insulin
receptor, the receptor will be
down-regulated or desensitized,
which means that you will have
less signalling happening. GLUT 4
transporter is not going to go to the
cell membrane (ex. mu
The early embryo is not
representing two distinct forms
Male and female embryos are
Male and female primordia
Two days in the life of Jill
1) What is the name of the principle demonstrated in this
case? Negative feedback
2) How does the body maintain blood pressure?
If the blood pressure goes up or down, the body senses it,
and it makes an adjustment t
PSL300H Lecture 8: Growth, growth
hormone and thyroid hormones
How do bones form and grow?
How does growth hormone bone growth?
Does growth hormone have any other roles?
What regulates growth hormone release?
How are thyroid hormones synth
Type 1 diabetes (Insulin dependant diabetes, juvenile diabetes)
10% of all diabetics
Insulin secretion reduced or absent
Treated by insulin injections or insulin pumps
NO INSULIN > CATABOLIC PATHWAYS
High blood glucose,
PSL300H Lecture 3
Receptors and Signalling
How do hormones signal? characteristics will eventually translate into function
What characteristics do receptors share?
What are the two main types of receptors? (based on their locations)
PSL300H Lecture 6
What is metabolism?
What are the metabolic processes in the fed/fasted state?
What hormones are produced by the endocrine pancreas?
Insulin (effects and regulation)
Glucagon (effects and regulation)
Human Physiology I (PSL300H)
Department of Physiology
PSL300H Lecture 1
What is physiology?
What is homeostasis?
Where are hormones produced?
How were many hormones identified?
Caffeine Practical Report
MG van Niekerk
Caffeine is one of the worlds most popular consumed substances and can be found
in drinks such as coffee, tea, energy drink and many other products. Caffeine is
broken down into many components an
Lab #11: Respiratory Physiology
The respiratory system enables the exchange of
O2 and CO2 between the cells and the
atmosphere, thus enabling the intake of O2 into
the body for aerobic respiration and the release
of CO2 for regulation of body f
Lab #8: The Special Senses: Hearing, Vision, and Orientation
The special senses (vision, hearing, equilibrium,
gustation, and olfaction) differ from the
somatesthetic senses in two fundamental ways.
First, the receptors for the special senses a
Lab #7: Nerve Pathways and Somatosensory Physiology
The nervous system plays a central role in
The central nervous system
functions as the primary controller and
integrator for most of the physiological
regulatory mechanisms of the