Light dependent stage of
The reactions of the light stage take place in
the thylakoids of the chloroplast.
1. The synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. This
is a special form of phosphorylation, called
photophosphorylation, because light
Important stages of the Calvin cycle
dioxide combines with a 5-carbon
compound, RIBULOSE BIPHOSPHATE
reaction is catalysed by the enzyme
RuBP carboxylase, the most common
enzyme in the world.
The process of using sunlight to build up complex substances from simpler ones is called photosynthesis.
PS is a complex process which takes place in a series of small steps.
It can be summarised by the equation:
6CO2 + 1
The process of using sunlight to build up
complex substances from simpler ones is
PS is a complex process which takes place
in a series of small steps.
It can be summarised by the equation:
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) What is the O-B-O bond angle in BO3 3- ?
C) greater than 120
B) less than 109.5
2) Calculate the freezing point of a so
1. Potassium hydrogen carbonate decomposes with heat as follows:
2KHCO3(s) K2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
How many moles of potassium carbonate will be produced if 201 g of potassium hydrogen carbonate are
a. 1.00 mol
b. 1.45 mol
c. 10.8 mol
d. 101 mo
Extra Sample problem Chapter 7
1. Suppose 140 joules of heat flows to the system from the surroundings. What can be said about the
heat transferred to or work done on the surroundings?
a. q> 0
b. q< 0
c. w> 0
d. w< 0
2. Consider the following data:
Extra Problem Sets Chapter 8
1.Which of the following atoms is diamagnetic in its ground state?
a. ytterbium (Yb)
b. holmium (Ho)
c. tantalum (Ta)
d. aluminum (Al)
e. germanium (Ge)
2. Which atom has the ground state electronic configuration 1s22s2
1. Which of the following can be determined by spectroscopy?
a. the structure of molecules
b. the natural abundance of isotopes
c. the biological activity of ions
d. the toxicity of compounds
2. Which of the following can spectroscopy tell us a
Nomenclature is self study and some notes has been
posted on the BB to refresh your Knowledge
You will have question about it in exam as well, so please
It is recommended to read chapter 4 from the textbook as
well along with lectu
Molecular Structures, Shapes,
Molecular Handshakes and
Chemists have a strong interest in understanding how nature
works at the micro and molecular levels. Adaptation of what
we learn from nature for t
Chemical Reactions and
Thermochemistry: What is it?
Thermochemistry study of heat absorbed or released
during chemical reactions and/or physical changes
Part of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics study of heat and its interconversion
Chemical Reaction, Chemical
Dont Waste a Single Atom!
Processes that convert dinitrogen gas into bioavailable,
reactive compounds are called fixation processes.
Using the Haber-Bosch process, ammonia gas (NH3), is
generated on an ind
g = 9.80665 ms-2
c = 2.99792 x 108 ms-1
h = 6.62607 x 10-34 Js
NA = 6.02214 x 1023 mol-1
1 atm = 760 mmHg
= 760 torr
= 1.01325 bar
= 101325 Pa
= 14.6959488 psi
1 Latm = 101.3 J
1 N = 1 kgms-2
= + 273.15
me = 9.10938 x 10-31
If 17.5 mL of a 0.1050 M Na2CO3 solution is added to
46.0 mL of 0.1250 M NaCl, what is the concentration
of sodium ion in the final solution?
If the molarity of a potassium carbonate solution is 2.9 10
2 M, what is the concen
Starting from Friday Jan 9th:
Monday Lectures: AA112
Wednesday and Friday Lectures: SY110
Lab Skill Seminar- START THIS FRIDAY
When: Fridays 1:00- 2:30 PM
Where HW 216
Here you get information about the
theory, techniques used in your la
Building Blocks of Materials
Matter is defined as: Anything that occupies space
and has mass.
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
STATES OF MATTER
Tightly packed, in a
Vibrate, but do n
What is the specific heat capacity of a liquid that
requires 642 kJ of heat to raise the temperature of
512 g of the substance by 27 oC?
0.00418 J K1 g1
0.0464 J K1 g1
4.18 J K1 g1
46.4 J K1 g1
Which of the follow
Antimony consists of two stable isotopes. The lighter isotope, Sb-121, has atomic
mass 120.904 u. The heavier isotope, Sb-123 has atomic mass 122.904 u. What is
the percent natural abundance of the lighter stable isotope of antimony?
Chemistry of Water,
Chemistry in Water
Chemistry of Water, Chemistry in Water
Arsenic Aint Arsenic
Arsenic compounds can be categorized as either
inorganic arsenic or organic arsenic, depending on the
nature of the elements to which it is b
17.5 mL of a 0.1050 M Na2CO3 solution is added to 46.0 mL of 0.1250 M
NaCl. What is the concentration of sodium ion in the final solution?
25.0 mL of a 0.2450 M NH4Cl solution is added to 55.5 mL of 0.1655 M FeCl3. What is
Extra Problem sets Chapter 9, 10
1. Which of the following compounds will show four resonances in a 13C spectrum?
2. Which of the following structures will produce four resonances in both 1H a
Modelling Bonding in Molecules
Observe, Measure, and Imagine
The bubble in the asphalt pool contains methane gas.
What do you picture when you think of methane gas?
What is your mental model of this substance?
In the field of chemistry, we are not sat
Modelling Atoms and
Periodic Variations of Properties of the
The periodic table reflects the law of chemical periodicity.
The properties of the elements that will vary periodically
with their atomic numbers include:
Chapter 6 thermochemistry
Thermochemistry study of heat absorbed or released during chemical reactions and/or
o Part of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics study of heat and its interconversions with other types of energy
Ch 5 Gases (Text + Lect)
Microscopic properties of gases
o Very low density
o Assume the volume and shape of their container
o Highly compressible
o Mix evenly and completely when combined
4 important properties to consider: pressure, vol
chemical reaction: a process which one or more substances are converted into one or more
combustion reaction: a particular type of chemical reaction in which a substance combines with
oxygen to form one or more oxygen containing
Lab title on the first page of the
All relevant physical
properties and MSDS
information of all
chemicals used in the
All pages should be
dated and numbered