Compressible Flow
Ideal Gas First Law of Thermo
For ideal gas
Entropy ideal gas
From 1st law
From ideal gases
Adiabatic Reversible Isentropic
process
Stagnation Properties
Enthalpy
For high-speed flows, enthalpy and kinetic energy are
combined into stag

9/28/2014
Designing a Hydraulic Ram Pump
Water For The World
Designing a Hydraulic Ram Pump
Technical Note No. RWS.4.D.5
[ Index| Bottom ]
A hydraulic ram or impulse pump is a device which uses the energy of
fallingwater to lift a lesser amount of water t

Flow in Pipes and Flow Meters
Bernoullis Theorem fromEulers Eqn
v
v v
g p
t
v 1
v 2 v v
g p
t 2
SteadyState, Frictionless, irrotational
1
p
v 2
g
2
We take a dot product along the streamline with displacement ds = dx i +dy j+dz k
1
1 p p p
1

Mass and Momentum Balance
Classification of Flows
Internal vs. external
Laminar vs. turbulent
Compressible vs. incompressible
Steady vs. unsteady
Supersonic vs. transonic vs. subsonic
Single-phase vs. multiphase
Elliptic vs. parabolic vs. hyperbolic
Newto

Introduction to Vector and Tensor
Navier-Stokes Equation
Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow involve four basic
quantities
Local (unsteady) acceleration
Convective acceleration
Pressure gradients
Viscous forces
Limits
Newtonian Mechanics
Ve

Non-Newtonian Fluids Rheology
What is Rheology?
Rheology is the study of the flow of materials that behave in an
interesting or unusual manner. Oil and water flow in familiar, normal ways,
whereas mayonnaise, peanut butter, chocolate, bread dough, and si

Lift and Drag
Objectives
Have an intuitive understanding on
Drag, friction and pressure drag, drag reduction, and lift.
Calculate the drag force
Understand the effects
Drag coefficients associated with flow over cylinders and
spheres
Understand the fundam

Turbomachinery
Categories
Pump: adds energy to a
fluid, resulting in an
increase in pressure
across the pump.
Turbine: extracts
energy from the fluid,
resulting in a decrease
in pressure across the
turbine.
Gases
Fans: Low pressure gradient, High volum

Boundary Layer Flow
Boundary Layer (BL) Approximation
Not to scale
To scale
Prandtl (1904) introduced the BL approximation
Boundary Layer (BL) Approximation
Not to scale
To scale
Prandtl (1904) introduced the BL approximation
Boundary Layer (BL) Approxima

HYDRAM PUMPS
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
Recognizing that the hydraulic ram pump (hydram) can be a viable and
appropriate renewable energy water pumping technology in developing countries, our
project team decided to design and manufacture more efficient and