Biodiversity assessment, ecological impact, management (more # of species greater variety)
Gathering info from closely related species (use lab mice to understand human disease)
Human health relations of
Pt III: Nucleic Acids
Linear polymers made up of
monomers called nucleotides.
They are of critical importance to
the cell because of their roles in the
storage, transmission and
expression of genetic information.
The first vaccine was developed by Edward Jenner in
1796. Deliberate infection with cowpox pus prevented
people catching smallpox.
Vaccines stimulate the immune system to make us better
prepared for an infection.
Part 1: Lipids
Biomacromolecules are BIG
They play an essential role in both
the structure and functions of cells.
Understanding the chemical basis of
life is about understanding
macromolecules how they ar
Cells and Energy
The chemical energy in glucose and other organic
compounds is not used directly by cells.
Cells carry out a series of reactions that release chemical
energy from glucose and transfer it to ATP. The e
Pt IV: Proteins
Virtually everything a cell is or does depends upon the
proteins it contains.
Protein molecules carry out essential cellular
functions and form the basis of many cell structures.
Proteins show enormous functi
Regulation and coordination systems in plants are
much simpler than in animals
Homeostatic regulation of plants seeks to:
Maintain an adequate uptake of water and nutrients form
soil into leaves
Control stomatal open
nature of cells
(all that tricky chemistry stuff!)
At the most basic level, the cell is a highly
organised assemblage of atoms
interacting with each other in a myriad of
In order to understand the molecular
Practice problem : Past Exam Question
In squash the fruit shape can be can be disc, sphere or long . A purebreeding
plant with disc-shaped fruit was crossed to a purebreeding squash with longshaped fruit. The F1 all had disc-shaped fruit. When the
Segregation of alleles complete dominance
Black hair is autosomal dominant so a black
haired dogs can be genotype BB
(homozygous dominant) or genotype Bb
Brown hair is autosomal recessive can only
be genotype bb.
5-alpha reductase deficiency
Reduced levels can result in ambiguous genitalia
Pseudohermaphroditism children appear female-like until puberty,
changes to male at puberty with surge of testosterone & hence
Humans: how did we get to be as we are?
Hominoid = all modern & extinct apes (including gibbons)
Hominid = all modern & extinct great apes
Hominin = all modern humans, extinct humans & human ancestors
Longer leg:arm length rat
Adaptive immune system
The adaptive immune response is different from
the innate immune response in that it has
specificity and memory.
Specificity ability to recognise and respond to
Memory second expos
Pt II: Carbohydrates
Are made from just three elements:
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Have a characteristic ratio of these
atoms for every one carbon atom
there are two hydrogen atoms and
one oxygen atom.
Morphology visible traits including reproductive features & histological features
Molecular evidence DNA, RNA, proteins, secondary metabolites
Classification how organisms are grouped; names given according to hierarchy
Homologous structures sa
SUBJECT LINE: Student Interested in Independent Research in your Laboratory
Dear Dr. ,
My name is Alison Wang and I'm a second year biology major at the University of
Queensland. In my introductory and upper-level coursework, I've developed a
Nervous & Endocrine Systems
Nervous and Endocrine Systems
The nervous and endocrine systems work together to
coordinate the actions of all other systems of the
body to produce behavior and maintain home
May be cellular or non-cellular.
Also known as pathogenic organisms
Include: bacteria, protozoa, oomycetes, fungi,
worms and arthropods.
Also known as pathogenic agents
a source of variation
Mutations are the source of
A mutation is a heritable change in genetic material.
Different forms of the same gene resulting from
mutations are known as alleles.
Alleles are the forms of a gene located at the sit
Each living cell is a small compartment
with an outer boundary, the plasma
Within this one compartment that makes up
a living cell is a fluid, called cytosol,
that consists mainly of water containi
The nature of chemical
reactions in cells
What do cells do?
All cells need to:
maintain and repair themselves
provide energy for movement and metabolism
and eliminate wastes.
These activities require the production of a variety of bi
The maintenance of the internal environment
in a relatively stable state in the face of
changes in the external or internal environment.
In multicellular organisms when we talk about
the internal environment we are considering th
The continuity of life is a result of cell division,
which is one of the most distinctive characteristics
of living organisms.
In the cases of humans, we develop from a single
cell that was originally the product of t
The cells of an organism are constantly
receiving information about their surrounding
environment in order to control and regulate
Cells also need to communicate to othe
Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
All living organisms require
organic compounds and
energy for their cells.
Depending on how
organisms obtain these
compounds and energy, we
classify them as being:
heterotrophic (other feeding)
Y-linked genes on the Y chromosome
Autosomal recessive or X-linked
X-linked recessive inheritance
Unaffected parents have an affected child
More males affected than females
No father to son transmission
Affected female has
Karyotype: sorted chromosomes
Karyogram: a drawing of chromosomes with banding shown
Autosome: a chromosome not involved in determining the sex of the
Sex chromosome: a chromosome involved in determining the sex of the
The degree or range in which a particular phenotype is expressed by
E.g. mild, moderate, sever
- Demonstrated variable expression because individuals with same
genotype may have different numbers of digits
Occurs in mammals where one X is randomly switched off during
For an X-linked trait females have twice the gene product of males
Inactive X or Barr body = heterochromatin
The number of Barr bodies is Xn 1