Personality Psychology 1
Personality as character (in drama, persona as
Theophratus: Greece men educated in a similar way; but turned
out to be very different.
The gross man
Personality as the true self that beneath the mask.
But this confuses the question:
Asking whether neurotic/conscientious tendencies are adaptive is not
the same as asking whether variation in
Cognition & Emotion
Extraversion predicts faster identification of probes replacing positive words.
Neuroticism predicts faster identification of probes replacing negative words
Possible to train a bias away from negative words
Successfully used to tr
Mean Neuroticism +/- SEM
5 HTTLPR Genotype
A common objection:
I am nothing like my sister!
Nor should you be, because:
The environment is having an impact on your personality that is at least
Suggestive data by Camperio, et al., 2007:
Compared family histories of Italians - island dwelling vs coastal-
mainland dwelling in terms of big five personality traits
Italians whose families resided on islands for at least 20 gene
Selective Neutrality makes restrictive, implausible assumptions
Balancing Selection may be more plausible
Antagonistic plietropy (fitness trade-offs)
Environmental heterogeneity (niches) and frequency dependent
selection (dare to be di
Life History Theory
1) Resources vary in their availability over time and space
2) Fitness maximization is not a one-shot game
- long vs. short term strategies
3) Trade-offs must be made:
- reproduce now or wait for better circumstances?
Reciprocal effects of traits and social environments
A (partial) test:
Pairs of participants interact for 5 minutes.
Behaviour is videotaped and coded, personality assessments (self and
other) are administered, and reputation ratings (fr
If genetic variations underlying personality are really fitness-neutral, then
personality traits should not predict fitness-relevant outcomes.
But they do:
Health (agreeableness, [low] neuroticism).
Behaviours, customs, ideas, beliefs, values etc that distinguish one group of
people from another.
psychology underlies culture and society, and biological evolution underlies
psychology (Barkow et al., 1992, p. 635).
Dimensions of culture
Can trade-offs explain the evolution of different personalities?
Life History Simulation:
Environmental resources vary widely in quality
Thorough exploring increases
likelihood of finding high quality
resources, but delays reproduction
Evolution of in
Description = how, i.e., the way in which people differ
Explanation = why, i.e., the reasons there are differences
What gives rise to individual differences in personality?
Clinical Psychology 5
* Which of the following is not related to abnormalities.
-*other personality-related disorder.
The answer is 1. Vulnerability: peoples defense
mechanism in res
Personality Psychology 2
To describe personality
The basic unit of describing the personality is
trait. It is a consistent pattern of behavior, thinking,
*It is stable overtime
* It is consistent across situations
*It may vary betwe
*Clinical psychology 4
Psychosis is (out of control) something out of reality. It is a
set of disorders:
That is distinguished on terms of symptom
configuration: such as delusional disorder and schizophrenia.
Duration: Schizophrenia versus schi
Personality Psychology 3
Alternative of trait psychology
Trait psychology defines that the behavior is stable
across situations, however,
Mischel proposed Situationism.
-Behavior is expressed in situations has weak correlate.
Personality Psychology 8
Validity has two major components: measurability
and practical usefulness such as content validity,
convergent validity, and discriminant validity.
For the test of trait X.
-All items should be intercalated.