1A. What was the issue in Ricci v. DeStefano (Supp. p. 55)?
Petitioners allege that when the CSB refused to certify the captain and lieutenant exam results based on the race of the successful candidates, it discriminated against them in violation of Title VII’s disparate-treatment provision. The City counter that its decision was permissible because the tests “appeared to violate Title VII’s disparate treatment provisions.” All evidence shows that the City chose not to certify the examination results because of the statistical disparity based on race, especially how the minority candidates had performed when compared to white candidates.