CHEM 2040U-W2011- ASSIGNMENT #1 DUE: FEBRUARY 2nd (Lecture Class) INSTRUCTORS: Dr. Liliana Trevani / Mr. Shumail Kamal Problem #1 A mixture of hydrogen and ammonia has a volume of 153.2 cm3 at 0.00 oC and 1 atm. The mixture is cooled to the temperature of
MIDTERM EXAM 2015 WITH SOLUTIONS IN RED
PART 1: SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. For the statement below, CIRCLE the bolded word(s)/symbol(s) that serve to make a
correct statement. The statement has at least one correct answer.
(a) The work done on the surround
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #3 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #7
1
Example :
Combustion of 2.016 g of solid glucose (C6H12O6) at 25 oC in an adiabatic bomb calorimeter with
heat capacity 9550 J/K gives a temperature rise of 3.232 oC. Find cUo
Chapter 5: Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
P5. 5) One mole of H200) is compressed from a state described by P = 1.00 bar and T: 325 K to a
state described by P : 660. bar and T: 625 K. In addition, [3 "~ 2.07 x 10"4 K71 and the d
Properties of gases
Molecular collisions
[16.6]
Molecule = rigid sphere of diameter d
d = collision diameter = sum of radii
= distance between centres for collision
to occur: 1
d = r1 + r2
2
d
Freeze in space all molecules but one:
In time t, it moves f
The 1st law of Thermodynamics
Work
[2.2]
Mechanics: Work = force distance (in the direction of the force)
dw = Fx dx
w = Fx dx
x2
(Fx = F projection on x)
x1
[w] = J
For motion at an angle to the force:
dw = F dr
w = F dr
2
F dr = F dx cos
1
For F=const:
The 1st law of Thermodynamics
Reversible and irreversible processes
Internal equilibrium state:
P and T are uniform throughout the gas
Pex
1
Very (infinitely) slow increase of Pex by small increments
gradually compresses the gas, driving it through
a seri
Real gases
Equation of state
[7.2]
van der Waals equation of state - for a non-ideal gas:
[ P + a(n/V)2 ] [ V nb ] = nRT (P - measured)
[ P + a/Vm2] [ Vm b ] = RT, Vm = V/n = molar volume,
a, b = van der Waals constants (fitted to experiments)
b > 0 - red
Fundamental concepts
Gas laws
[1.4]
Boyles law (17th century):
P
for a fixed amount of gas and fixed T
T2 > T1
P ~ 1/V, or PV = const [P] = 1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 atm = 101325 Pa
T1
P(V) = hyperbolic plot, an isotherm (T = const):
0
V
Gay-Lussacs law (18th centu
Real gases
Equation of state
[7.2]
van der Waals equation of state - for a non-ideal gas:
[ P + a(n/V)2 ] [ V nb ] = nRT (P - measured)
[ P + a/Vm2] [ Vm b ] = RT, Vm = V/n = molar volume,
a, b = van der Waals constants (fitted to experiments)
b > 0 - red
Fundamental concepts
Basics
[1.3]
System an object of study, part of the world with definite boundaries.
Example: You with your skin
Surroundings everything outside the system.
Universe = system + surroundings.
Surroundings
System
Surroundings
Open system
Kinetic theory
Ideal gas motion and pressure
[16.1]
Ideal gas approximation - a gas of many particles which
1. are much smaller than distances between them
2. have kinetic energy (move by the Newtons laws)
3. have no potential energy (of interaction betwe
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #2 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #5
1
Reversible and Irreversible Processes
reversible
Work done in a multistep series
of irreversible expansion processes
at constant pressure (yellow)
reversible irreversible
The m
Course Introduction
January 9th 2017
CHEM 2040 - Winter 2017
1
Course Information - Blackboard
A Blackboard site is available for this course and will provide online access to the
course syllabus, lectures notes, assignments, and laboratory materials. Stu
CHEM 2040: Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Tutorial #2
Assume all gases are perfect (ideal gases) unless stated otherwise. State any additional assumptions.
Problem 1
The temperature of 2.50 moles of an ideal gas increases from 13.5 oC to 55.1 oC as the gas i
CHEM 2040: Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Tutorial #3
Problem 1
Calculate , q, H, and U for the process in which 1.75 mol of water undergoes the transition
H2O (l, 373K)
H2O (g, 525 K) at 1 bar of pressure. The molar volume of liquid water at 373K
is 1.89 x
CHEM 2040: Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Tutorial #1
_
Assume all gases are perfect (ideal gases) unless stated otherwise.
Problem 1 (P.1.5 - Student Solutions Manual Library)
A gas sample is known to be a mixture of ethane and butane. A bulb having a 215 c
grew (1, ggwhom - 94/4
(,9 h: an:
C4003 ( onLQL) :3? Q Cosatmone)
L761
3* 0h: RmfQJCLWQ, wad WM
0 A .
[SC-2,4 0 ti? Wwe read-vow (S g Pom armeoug H O \m V 4meMk7
I 56% AW W 4 g AG i0
0 i)
[36% >0 g and 'LP APP L? (@0334 . 'TMm-CCQAr swims - Mm
Pro
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #5 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #11
1
Chapter #4 Standard enthalpy and energy of reaction calculations
4.1- Calculate the single bond enthalpies and energies for Si-F, SiCl, C-F, N-F, etc.
From Table 4.1 Page 546
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #2 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #3
1
Mixtures of Gases (Review)
Daltons Law Partial Pressures
Total pressure is the sum of the pressure due to each gas
Ptot = P1+P2+Pn
For gases that can be approximated by the ide
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #2 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #4
1
Example 1: Internal Energy (U) State function (review)
Uinitial
H2O(l) - 25oC,1atm
initial state (A)
Ustep#1
Ufinal
U = Ufinal-Uinitial
H2O(g) - 100oC,1atm
final state (B)
U#
U
Lecture #2
Chapter #1: Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics
1
10
Basic Definitions
System
Surroundings
Boundary
Wall
Adiabatic
Diathermal
Open system
Closed system
Isolated system
System variables
Pressure
Temperature
Equilibrium
Thermal equilibrium
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #3 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #8
1
The dependence of U on V and T
U
dU = dV
V T
U = T P P
V T
T V
Internal pressure
Units: force/area
U
U
dU = dT + dV
T V
V T
P
dU = dUV + dUT = Cv dT + T - P dV
T V
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #2 (Engel and Reid)
Lecture #6
1
Determining U and Introducing Enthalpy
How can the U for a thermodynamic process be measured?
Bomb calorimeter and Chapter
4 (lectures). To carry out calculation on ideal gas s
CHEM 2040U W2017
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
This course is intended to provide a background in the fundamentals of chemical thermodynamics and
kinetics, and their applications to modern science. Topics in thermodynamics include ideal and nonideal gases,
CHEM 2040
Thermodynamics and Kinetics
Chapter #4 (Engel and Reid)
Lectures #9 and #10
1
Standard enthalpy of reaction
Standard enthalpy of reaction between substances in their standard
states.
Standard State: The pure form of a substance as it exists at e
Kinetic theory
Maxwell distribution
[11.6]
A particle has mass m and (vector) velocity v = (vx, vy, vz)
Probability for the speed component along x to be between vx and vx+dvx
(i.e. fraction of molecules with such speeds out of total number N total):
dPx