D = maximum |CRFo CRFe|
ifZ>0(i.e.,abovethemean),CNV=.50+A ifZ=0(i.e.,equaltomean),CNV=.50 ifZ<0(i.e.,belowthemean),CNV=1.00 (.50+A)
NND =
NND
i =1
n
i
n
d = ( x2 x1 ) 2 + ( y2 y1 ) 2
2
=
i =1
r
c
( O ij E ij ) 2 E ij
j =1
df = (R 1)(C 1)
Eij =
Ri C j N
Geog 339 Definitions Regression: model the relationship to understand the actual relationship between two variables and make predictions. Bivariate Regression Analysis: Independent: x-axis; Dependent: y-axis. Coefficient of determination (r2): the total v
Geog 339 Definitions Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: data are ordinal; compare two independent random sample rank sums for difference. ANOVA: determine which is more dominant; between group variability or within. F>Fcutoff: reject null Between-group variability:
Text Part 5 (p. 191)
Statistical Relationship Between Variables
Spatial association (map patterns)
Correlation analysis (Ch. 13)
Measure of strength of association E.g., income level and crime rates are strongly correlated
Regression Analysis (Ch. 14)
Chapter 12: Inferential Spatial Statistics
Introduction
Spatial Pattern
Distribution of a variable across a study area Can be point or area patterns Dot maps or choropleth maps
Geographers describe and explain spatial pattern
Information about the under
Chapter 11: Goodness of Fit and Contingency Analysis
Chapter 11:
Two types of tests
1. Goodness-of-fit Actual frequency distribution tested against an expected frequency distribution
E.g., test that sample data has a normal distribution
2. Contingency An
1. a) The following are restaurant ratings by a professional food critic of 15 sampled restaurants separated by a period of exactly 6 months. The critic has assessed/sampled the same 15 restaurants over this time period from a city wide population of 100+
Learning Goals for Students of Geography 339
1. To understand how real-life problems encountered in geography can be solved through the application of statistical methodology. 2. Gain statistical literacy and comfort in critically evaluating statistical i
Geog 339 Definitions HYPOTHESIS: A testable statement about the "link" (mechanism) between the process and the observations. THEORY: A body of knowledge which is used to pose hypotheses OBSERVATION: The elements or phenomena under study for which informat
CONFIDENCE INTERVALS
Eg. Suppose that we check for water clarity in 50 locations in Lake Tahoe and discover that the average depth of clarity of the lake is 14 feet. Suppose that we know that the standard deviation for clarity (for the entire lake's depth
Characteristics of Geographic Data: CONCEPTS
TYPES OF DATA SOURCES PRIMARY DATA SOURCE: Data acquired directly from the source. The investigator has control over the data-gathering procedure. SECONDARY (ARCHIVAL) DATA SOURCE: Data acquired by an organisat
Learning Goals for Students of Geography 339
1. To understand how real-life problems encountered in geography can be solved through the application of statistical methodology.
2. Gain statistical literacy and comfort in critically evaluating statistical i
GEOG 339
MOCK FINAL EXAM
THIS IS MEANT AS A SAMPLE TO HELP YOU STUDY AND IS BY NO MEANS AN EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF MATERIAL THAT WILL BE COVERED IN THE FINAL EXAM.
Name:_ Student Id:_ Allowable Time: 2 hours An equation sheet is provided. Calculators are permi