Correlation
Are a and b related to each other ?

If height increases does leg length increase?

As height increases does weight increase?
How can we quantitatively describe this?

Correlation co efficients
Most common

Pearson product moment correlati
Lecture 5
Writing the literature review
Developing a topical outling
Organizing
Helping the reader
Using headings
 How much information to give
 critical studies
 related studies
Avoiding Jargon when writing
Jargon

A considerable amount of

Are
Lecture 7
RCT randomized control trials
Case control observational study
Cross sectional report survey dont at some point of time
Quasi experimental have control group

You pick people you expect to be better in the intervention which is not good for the
Lecture 3
Step 3 Gathering Data

Determine most appropriate methods to gather the data

Important that methods are sound

Internal validity extent that the results can be attributed to the intervention, Trueness of
the results

External Validity gener
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UNIVERSiTY OF
CALGARY
° \ur KINESIOLOGY
Course Outline
KNES 213: Introduction to Research in Kinesiology
Winter 2013
. m w I
January 9 through April 15
Instructor: Larry Katz PhD Room: ST 141
Phone: (403) 2203418 Days: M/W/F
Lecture 1
How do we know what we know?

Tradition

Authority

Experience

Agreement

Trial and Error

Logical Reasoning
Five Characteristics of Research
Systematic: plan, identify, design, collect data, evaluate
Logical: examine procedures to evalua
Problems with Simple random selection

Target group could be too small so numbers would not show real show of population
Systematic Sampling
You obtain a sample of 500 individuals from a town of 10000 people using systematic sampling
Kth item = 1000/500
One number that can represent the group

Mean

Median

Mode
Degree of difference between scores is the variability

Range

Standard deviation

Confidence intervals

1 standard deviation above and below 68% of people should fall into that area

2 s
Lecture 3 after midterm
Inferential statistics

Estimate population values from sample data

Assumption: sample represents the population

Assumptions based on probability and sampling error

That branch of statistics concerned with testing hypotheses
Lecture 6
Conflict of Interest
Conflicts of interest exists when an author or institution reviewer or editor has financial or
personal relationships that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions
Ex.

Financial

Personal relationships

Academ
Objective of the study
There are 4 general types

Descriptive

Measuring a new instrument

Exploration of relationships

Comparison between groups
Statistical Hypotheses

Null: no difference between groups (age etc). predicts no difference

Alternat
Causation component causes:

Distracted

Icy

OP

Poor footwear

Fatigue
Neccesary Cause

Gender  > pregnant
Suffiecient cause

Hit play button > hear music
1. Strength: A small association does not mean that there is not a causal effect, though
What are statistics?

An objective means of interpreting a collection of observations
What are statistics used for?

Describe characteristics of data

Test relationships between sets of data

Test differences among data sets
Height and standing long j
Random error
1 Can occur for a variety of reasons
2 Fatigue
3 Inaccuracy
4 Patient moves

With many trials would eventually cancel out so average score is good estimate of true
score
Measurement error
Small sample
Observed score = true score + large