Structure and Bonding in
Lewis Dot Structures
Structures of Common Drugs
Nucleus is a Tiny Fraction of
the Volume of an Atom
Atomic Number and Atomic Ma
proteins and fats are the
main nutritional categories for animals as
well as plants.
Each is composed of simpler units
constituting its building blocks .
Each may exist in more than one form to
perform specific biol
Did you know that more than 800 million people all over the
world know what it means to go to bed hungry every night?
Sadly, about 24,000 people die from the effects of hunger each
day. That's about one person every 3.5 seconds.
Abundance, not scar
Water Pollution in
The Gift of
Egypt Water Resources
The mean annual rainfall is estimated at 18 mm. It ranges from 0 mm in the desert
to 200 mm in the northern coastal region.
The Nile river is the main source of water for Egypt. Under the
1) Evaporation is the change of state
of water (a liquid) to water vapour (a
2) Transpiration is evaporation of
liquid water from plants and trees into
the atmosphere. About 90% of all water
that enters the roots transpires
What we wish to learn
What are the pros and cons of both
renewable and nonrenewable energy?
Is the implementation of renewable energy
in modern society realistic?
We will use coal as an example of
nonrenewable energy; solar and wind
power for renewable
The Air we Breathe
What is smog?
Smog is a form of air pollution.
The word "smog" is a combination of
the words "smoke" and "fog." Smog
is a mixture of many pollutants,
mainly ground level ozone and fine
Sources of smog
The term acid rain is used to mean the
deposition of acidic components in
rain,snow,fog,dew,dry particles ,or any other
form of precipitation which unusually acidic.
Since the industrial r
The atmospheric layers
The discovery of the Ozone
The formation of Ozone layer
What is the Ozone Hole
Causes of The Ozone Hole
Effects of The Ozone Hole
The atmospheric layers
ozone is concentrated
in a layer in the
What is Global Warming?
Global warming is the increase in the
average temperature of the Earth's nearsurface air and oceans since the midtwentieth century, and its projected
warming is due to climate changes
Matter in Living and Nonliving
Matter is anything that occupies space and has
mass. It includes all solids, liquids and gases, and
living and nonliving things.
Atoms are the building blocks of all matter are
110 atoms in nature!
(ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I)
: Dr. Ola Al Sakka
: SSE, Chemistry Department R.1182
Office Hours : Mon, Thurs 9 10 pm & other by appointment. Office hours are
subject to change, any changes will be announced via blackbo
Rules to make understanding hybridization easy
Count the electron groups (single, double, triple bonds and lone pairs, each act as one
group, dont count separately), and then minus one. It should be 3, 2 or 1. So
respectively, it is
3. Organic Compounds:
Alkanes and Their
Based on McMurrys Organic Chemistry, 7th edition
Why this Chapter
Alkanes are unreactive, but provide useful vehicle to
introduce important ideas about organic compounds
Alkanes will be used to dis
Polar Covalent Bonds;
Acids and Bases
Bond Moments and Dipole Moments
It is defined as the ability of an atom to
attract electrons towards it.
Compare 2 atoms within the
thermodynamic state of a system
Energy released to surroundings as heat
specific amounts of
This is because the
of the products are
higher than the