MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY
UNITI
ULTRASONICWELDING
ULTRASONICWELDING
ULTRASONICWELDING
Introduction
A solid state welding process in which coalescence is
produced at the faying surfaces by the application of high
frequency vibratory energy while the work pie
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.9 Lenoir Cycle:
2
3
1
Volume
(a)
2
3
1
Entropy
(b)
Fig.4.9. Lenoir cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P.
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.5 Air Standard Diesel Cycle:
Air standard diesel cycle is a idealized cycle for diesel engines. It is as shown on P-v
and T-s diagrams. The processes in the cycle ar
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.4 Air Standard Otto Cycle:
The air-standard-Otto cycle is the idealized cycle for the spark-ignition internal
combustion engines. This cycle is shown above on p-v an
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.3 Ericsson Cycle:
The Ericsson cycle consists of two isothermal and two constant pressure processes.
The processes are:
Process 1-2: Reversible isothermal compressio
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.2 Stirling Cycle (Regenerative Cycle) :
The Carnot cycle has a low mean effective pressure because of its very low work
output. Hence, one of the modified forms of t
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.1 Carnot Cycle :
A Carnot gas cycle operating in a given temperature range is shown in the T-s diagram
in Fig. 4.1(a). One way to carry out the processes of this cyc
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
Gas Power Cycles
4.0 Introduction:
An important application of thermodynamics is the analysis of power cycles through
which the energy absorbed as heat can be continuo
Problems with solutions:
1. A 1-m3 tank is filled with a gas at room temperature 20C and pressure 100 Kpa. How
much mass is there if the gas is
a) Air
b) Neon, or
c) Propane?
Given: T=273K; P=100KPa; Mair=29; Mneon=20; Mpropane=44;
m = P V M
RT
m air =
10
IRREVERSIBILITY
The entropy of a system plus its surroundings (i.e. an isolated
system) can never decrease (2nd law).
The second law states:
(S)system + (S)surr. = 0 where = final - initial
> 0 irreversible (real world)
= 0 reversible (frictionless, ideal
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.6 Limited Pressure Cycle (or Dual Cycle):
This cycle is also called as the dual cycle, which is shown in Fig.4.6. Here the heat
addition occurs partly at constant vo
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.7 Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycles:
The important variable factors which are used as the basis for comparison of the cycles
are compression ratio, peak pre
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.8. Atkinson Cycle:
Atkinson cycle is an ideal cycle for Otto engine exhausting to a gas turbine. In this cycle
the isentropic expansion (3-4) of an Otto cycle (1-2-3
MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY
UNITI
SPECIALCASTINGPROCESS
MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY
ManufacturingTechnology
CastingDefects
Therearenumerousopportunitiesinthecastingoperationfor
different defects to appear in the cast product. Some of them
arecommontoallcastingpro
Module 4
Pure substances and
Steam tables and ideal
and real gases
Properties Of Gases
In thermodynamics we distinguish between
a) perfect gases
b)Ideal gases
c) real gases
The equation pV/T= constant was derived assuming that
Molecules of a gas are point
Vapour Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
5.3 Mean Temperature of Heat Addition:
3
Tmax
T
5
Tmean
2
6
Tmin
1
4
s
Fig.5.3. Mean temperature of heat addition
If Tm is the mean temperature of heat addition as
Vapour Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
5.2 Rankine Cycle:
Rankine cycle is the idealized cycle for steam power plants. This cycle is shown on p-v, T-v, h-s, diagram in the above figures. It consists of f
Vapour Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
Vapor Power Cycles
5.1 Carnot Vapor Power Cycle:
3
BOILER
TURBINE
4
2
CONDENSER
PUMP
1
Fig.5.1(a). Carnot vapour cycle
2
3
TH
T
TL
1
4
s
Fig.5.1 (b)T-s diagram
Indi
Gas Power Cycles
Prof. U.S.P. Shet , Prof. T. Sundararajan and Prof. J.M . Mallikarjuna
4.10 Brayton Cycle (Simple Gas Turbine Cycle):
3
2
4'
4
1
Volume
(a)
3
4'
2
4
1
Entropy
(b)
Fig.4.10. Brayton cycle on p-v and T-s diagram
Indian Institute of Technolo
Module 7
Entropy
Clausius Inequality
Suppose we have an
engine that receives from
several heat reservoirs and
rejects heat to several
reservoirs, we still have
the equation valid.
Clausius Inequality
(contd)
With reference to previous fig,
Assume that res
Chapter 6
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Leads Up To Second Law Of
Thermodynamics
It is now clear that we cant construct a heat engine with just one
+ve heat interaction.
The above engine is not possible.
Second Law Of Thermodynamics
(contd)
Is it possible
Module 5
Basics of energy conversation
cycles
Heat Engines and Efficiencies
The objective is to build devices which receive
heat and produce work (like an aircraft engine or a
car engine) or receive work and produce heat (like
an air conditioner) in a sus
ME0203 Manufacturing Technology
Chapter 1
Special welding processes
Types of Welding
Fusion Welding
Homogeneous
Gas Welding
Electroslag
High Energy Beam
Electric Arc
Pressure Welding
Heterogeneous
Brazing
Friction Welding
Soldering
MIG
TIG
Shielded Metal
MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY
UNITI
LASERBEAMWELDING
LASERBEAMWELDING
LASERBEAMWELDING
LASER
LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation
Focusedlaserbeamhashighpowerdensity.
Usefulforwelding,cutting,heattreating,.
Materialsprocessinglasers
G
MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY
UNITI
FRICTIONWELDING
FRICTIONWELDING
FRICTIONWELDING
Introduction
Friction welding is a solidstate welding process in which
coalescence is achieved by frictional heat combined with
mechanicalpressure.
The heat is generated by the
MANUFACTURINGTECHNOLOGY
UNITI
ELECTROSLAGWELDING
ELECTROSLAGWELDING
ELECTROSLAGWELDING
Introduction
Electro Slag Welding (ESW) is a highly productive, single pass fusion
welding process for thick (greater than 25mm up to about 300mm)
materialsinaverticalo