Phases and Solutions
Stability of Phases
Phase any physically distinct, homogeneous part of a
system. Uniform throughout in chemical composition and
Component unique chemical substance that has definite
Reaction rate: the central focus of chemical kinetics
The wide range of reaction rates
Homogeneous reactions speed of a reaction is
Properties of reactants and products
Concentrations of react
Change in the Gibbs free energy with respect to amount
at constant temperature and pressure.
For systems with more than one chemical component,
i T,P,n j ( ji)
For pure subst
Second and Third Laws of
Gas expands to fill the available volume.
Hot body cools to the temperature of its surroundings.
Ice cube melts in your hand.
Book falls to the ground.
? Why doesnt the heat in the
Work is defined as any quantity of energy
that flows across the boundary between
the system and surroundings that can be
used to change the height of a mass in
Note: this definition holds true in the laboratory
which is in the earth
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Heat is an invisible, weightless substance called a caloric.
Things that were hot were stuffed with caloric.
Fire (combustion) comes from an invisible su