DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENT
Fatigue Failure Resulting
from Variable Loading
Dr. Umar Shahbaz Khan
Department of Mechatronics Engineering
Fall- 2014
Contents
Introduction to Fatigue in Metals
The Endurance Limit
Approach to Fatigue Failure in
Analysis and De
Netoutputandthermalefficiencyofsteampowerplant
Assume:
Furnace
Plantoperatessteadily
l
dl
QH
Heatlossesinpipesconsideredas
WNet
HE
partofheatrejectiontosurroundings
part of heat rejection to surroundings
Totalheatrejectedbyplant:
QL 145 8 153 GJ / h
Tutor
o
1. A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle. Steam enters the turbine at 6 MPa and 450 C
and is condensed in the condenser at 20 kPa. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0.4 MPa to heat the feedwater in an
open feedwater he
Question1
5
4
3
6
2
20kPa
1
7
h1 h f @ 20 kPa 251.40kJ/kg
3
v1 v f @ 20 kPa 0.001017m /kg
w p1,in v1 p2 p1 0.39kJ/kg
h2 h1 w p1,in 251.79kJ/kg
p3 0.4MPa
SatLiquid
h3 h f @ 0.4 MPa 604.74kJ/kg
v3 v f @ 0.4 MPa 0.001084m /kg
3
w p 2,in v3 p4 p3 6.07 kJ/kg
h
Q1
A gaseous fuel with a volumetric analysis of 60% CH4,
30% H2, and 10% N2 is burned to completion with 130%
theoretical air. Determine:
(a) theairfuelratio,and
(b) the fraction of water vapor that would condense if
the product gases were cooled to 20 C
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 1, 2013-2014)
Tutorial 3 Entropy change of Solids, Liquids and Gases
1. A 12-kg iron block initially at 350C is quenched in an insulated tank that contains 100 kg
of water at 2
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 1, 2013-2014)
Tutorial 2 Carnot Cycle; Entropy and
Increase of Entropy Principle
1. Consider a Carnot refrigeration cycle executed in a closed system in a saturated liquidvapor
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 1, 2013-2014)
Tutorial 7 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles
1. A two-evaporator compression refrigeration system as shown in the figure uses refrigerant134a as the working flui
Safety 'Requirements for
Construction,
Operation and Maintenance of
Electrical Plants and Electric Lines
Regulations, 2011.
CENTRAL ELECIRICITY AUTHORITY
NOTIFICATION
New Delhi
Definitions
(a) "Act" means the Electricity Act, 2003;
(b) "contractor" means
GAS TURBINES
Prof. Umesh Kulkarni
GAS TURBINES
Introduction:
In the history of energy conversion, the gas
turbine is relatively new.
The first practical gas turbine used to generate
electricity ran at Neuchatel, Switzerland in 1939,
and was developed by t
Exercise for students: Pumps
Q 1. A Pump is drawing liquid from a sump open to atmosphere as shown and the data is given
below:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Suction lift =3 meter
Friction losses in pipeline foot valve Strainer, Bend, Valve etc. = 1 meter
Temperature of wa
Assignment PEM P B22 Static and Rotating Equipment ( Mech)
10/09/15
Q.1. A centrifugal pump operates at 4000 rpm, has a flow of 150 litre/s, a head of 35m and a
Power input of 125hp.
How would flow and power vary if the operating speed drops to 2000 rpm?
Fans, Blowers and
Compressors
Introduction
Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial process
requirements.
Fans generate a pressure to move air (or gases) against a
resistance caused by ducts, dampers, or other components in a fan
syst
A case of Michigan Water Plant
The picture shown above is for Water intake section of Chicago Water treatment
plant. Water flows from Lake Michigan in to a large concrete sump. The top of this
sump is well above the level of Lake Michigan. The line feedin
School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 2, 2012-2013)
Tutorial 12 Combustion Processes
1.
A gaseous fuel with a volumetric analysis of 60% CH 4 , 30% H 2 , and 10% N 2 is burned
to completion with 130% theoretical air.
School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 2, 2012-2013)
Tutorial 11 Ideal gas mixtures and Air Conditioning
1.
The volumetric analysis of mixture of gases is 30% oxygen, 40% nitrogen, 10% carbon
dioxide, and 20% methane.
School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 2, 2012-2013)
Tutorial 10 Combined Cycle and Co-Generation Plants
1. A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle. Steam enters
the turbine at 6 MPa and 45
Entropychangeofwaterexpandingintoanevacuatedspace
FromTableA4,atstate1(compressedliquid):
P2 300kPa, T1 60 C
v1 0.001017 m 3 / kg
u1 u f @ 60 C 251.16kJ / kg
P 300kPa
1
P2 1.5kPa
T1 60 C
T2 C
s1 s f @ 60 C 0.8313kJ / kgK
m 1.5kg
m 1.5kg
V1 m 3 / kg
g
V2 2
Carnotrefrigerationcycle
Refrigeratoroperateinreversed
R fi
t
t i
d
Carnotcycle
T
COPofCarnotrefrigerationCycleis:
COP of Carnot refrigeration Cycle is
COPref ,Carnot
TL
1
QL
TH TL TH TL 1 WNet
COPref ,Carnot
1
5
1.2 1
Tutorial2MA2007
1
v
Carnotrefrigera
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 1, 2013-2014)
Tutorial 1 Heat Engines & Refrigerators;
Maximum Performance of Cycles
1. A steam power plant receives heat from a furnace at a rate of 280 GJ/h. Heat loses to
th
Idealvapour compressionrefrigerationcycle
Id l
i
fi
ti
l
FromR134aTablesA11 A13,
atstate1(satvapour):
p1 120kPa, sat.vap
h1 hg @120 kPa 233.86kJ/kg
s1 s g @120 kPa 0.9354kJ/kg K
g
Atstate2(superheatedvapour):
p2 0.7 MPa, s2 s1
h2 270.22kJ/k
kJ/kg
Tutorial
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 1, 2013-2014)
Tutorial 6 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles
1. A refrigerator uses refrigerant-134a as the working fluid and operates on an ideal vaporcompression refrigeration
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 1, 2013-2014)
Tutorial 5 Entropy Balance
1. A rigid tank is divided into two equal parts by a partition. One part of the tank contains
1.5 kg of compressed liquid water at 300
Entropychangeinclosedsysteminvolvingsolidsandliquids
T1water 22 C
T1iron 350 C
cavg , water 4.18kJ / kgK
cavg ,iron 0.45kJ / kgK
mwater 100 kg
miron 12 kg
Takingtheironblockandwaterasaclosedsystem,
Taking the iron block and water as a closed system,
Negli
School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 2, 2012-2013)
Tutorial 8- Gas power cycles
1.
Consider a Carnot cycle executed in a closed system with 0.6 kg of air. The temperature
limits of the cycle are 300 and 1100 K, and
School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
MA2007 Thermodynamics (Semester 2, 2012-2013)
Tutorial 9 - Vapour power cycles
Consider a steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle and has a
net power output of 45 MW. Steam enters the tu