CHAPTER ONE: THE SCIENCE OF MIND
THE DISCIPLINE OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Explain the subject matter that psychologists study, addressing the meaning of mind
and psychologys role as a hub science.
CHAPTER THREE: THE EVOLVING MIND
NATURE AND NURTURE INTERTWINED
1. Analyze the role of genes as the building blocks of human nature, distinguishing
among genotypes, gene expression, and phenotypes.
2. Explain how sexual reproduction in
CHAPTER TWO: THE MEASURE OF MIND
METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Describe the criteria that distinguish scientific observation and reasoning from casual, everyday thinking.
2. Articulate how scie
CHAPTER FOUR: THE BIOLOGICAL MIND
THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
1. Debate the strengths and limitations of biological psychology as a major psychological perspective, considering the roles of monism, reductionism, and reciprocity betw
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE ADAPTIVE MIND
1. Compare and contrast reflexes, instincts, and learned behaviors in terms of complexity, flexibility, and the effects of experience.
2. Analyze the components of a classical conditioning expe
CHAPTER NINE: THE KNOWING MIND
1. Describe the importance of attention to memory.
2. Define encoding, storage, and retrieval.
3. Differentiate between sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory.
4. Describe the subtype
CHAPTER FIVE: THE PERCEIVING MIND
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
1. Explain the basic steps of sensation/perception, including transduction of stimuli into
neural signals and the distinction between bottom-up and top-down perceptual
CHAPTER SIX: THE AWARE MIND
ELEMENTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
1. Analyze the meaning of consciousness in terms of alertness, sensory awareness, and
self-awareness, and debate whether various nonhuman animals ha
Reflexes are involuntary reactions to a stimulus. They can be initiated, but becomes a reflexive
pattern once it is initiated. It is innate and not learnt through experience.
Instincts are unlearned patterns of behaviour more c
Mental representations are stored information that can be activated and manipulated by thought.
Representation in a person's mind of the physical world.
An organizing principle derived from experie
A clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occur in an individual
and that is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom); or disability (i.e., impairment
The study of personality investigates individuals characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and
behaving. These patterns lead to the differences between the individuals.
Psychodynamic (Structural) Model of Personality
CHAPTER TEN: THE THINKING MIND
THINKING, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE
1. Explain the role of mental representations in thinking, and differentiate the feature
detection, prototype, theory-building, and schema models of concept formation.
CHAPTER SEVEN: THE FEELING MIND
MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
1. Differentiate emotion and motivation, and analyze their relationship to each other.
2. Analyze the physiological and environmental factors that influence hunger and eating.
Motivations are psychological processes that define our goals and guide goal-directed behavior. It
is involuntary for basic drives, such as hunger and thirst. Motivations help determine the kinds of
stimuli that evoke emotional reactions. If so
Process of Memory
- Encoding (The process of acquiring information and transferring it into memory)
- Storage (The retention of information)
- Retrieval (The recovery of stored information)
Types of Memory
A brief period where possibly all incoming
Behaviour is suggested to be influenced by the external environment. The effects are forceful, even
though they are subtle, and can affect peoples thoughts, feelings and behavior.
Behaviour is affected by interna
PL1101 Tutorial 1 Handout
What is your brain doing right now?
Many of our behaviors are represented in several locations within the brain and involve the
brain working as an integrated whole. Below is a list of common activities. For each activity,
Tutorial 3 (Cognitive Psychology)
Processing of information from the world around us involves a series of continuous stages, starting
from paying attention to, sensing and perceiving the stimuli. The information is then stored in
memory and subsequently u
PL1101E Course Text The essentials (v3)
The text for this module is Cacioppo, JT & Freberg, LA. (2013) Discovering Psychology: The Science of
Mind. This text gives comprehensive and in-depth coverage of the whole of psychology, and students
intending to m
PL4214 Evolutionary Psychology
National University of Singapore, Department of Psychology
A note on the theory of evolution by natural selection for those who may be unfamiliar with the theory
The idea of evolution was considered long before Darwin publis
From The ManWho Mistook His Wife for a Hat by Oliver Sacks.
New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
- . .
The Man Who Mistooh His Wife
for a Hat
Dr P. was a musician of distinction, well-known for many years
as a singer, and then, at the
PL 1101E Chapter 8: The Adaptive Mind
Reflexes: Inevitable, involuntary responses to stimuliKnee Jerk effect, Touch hot surface
Instincts: Fixed, inborn patterns of behaviour thats more complex than reflexes elicited by
environmental stimuli Attachment of
Memory, Thought, & Learning
1. Serial Position Effect: Demonstration of the serial position effect and Von Restorff effect.
Instructions: For Students
40 words will be presented one at a time.
Your task is to memorize the 40 words.
Tutorial 4: Developmental and Social Psychology
Activity 1: Parenting styles
Aim: To consider how parenting styles may impact developmental outcomes, and the
interplay of various systemic factors on the parent-child dyad
1. Watch Supernanny video: http:/w
Tutorial 5: Personality and Abnormal
Activity 1: Personality
1. Complete the BFI-10 questionnaire (provided in textbook (pg 458- 459). Discuss
2. Group discussion: To suggest to a class a job or social role for which one particular
Tutorial 2: Sensation & Perception (Illusions) & Emotions
Activity 1: Illusions
What is the illusion?
What is your explanation for this illusion?
What does this illusion tell us about the nature of the visual /audio system?
Why do you think re
What is Psychology?
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes, such as thoughts and emotions.
Unlike other fields that study the mind using introspection (observing own mental and emotional
processes), such as philosophy and lite
Psychology & Genetics
Nature and Nurture
Nature and nurture are often intertwined, as experiences and contribution from environmental
factors (nurture) affect our heredity/innate predisposition (nature). Identical twins may look and
behave the same at bir