Non Substance Categories
we saw the vertical SAID OF relation is a classification relation, answering the question: what is
it applies primarily to substances, to non-substances in a secondary way
Horizontal, Cross-categorical predication:
1. Platos Life and Works
468 BC birth of Socrates
427 BC birth of Plato
404 BC regime of the Thirty at Athens.
399 BC death of Socrates. Plato and other friends of Socrates leave Athens.
385 BC (approx.) Plato returns to Athens, founds the Academy.
Greats: From Plato to the Enlightenment
Dr. Dave Ward (Dave.Ward@ed.ac.uk)
Miss Sarah Nicol (email@example.com)
Course Aims and Objective
the self exists
reason can reveal the essential nature of things
God has formal reality (trademark argument)
God is our preserver (preservation argument)
there can be no evil demon
clear and distinct ideas are trustworthy
The problem of error:
These are changes as envisaged in the Categories
the subject is a substance and the contraries are opposed qualities
more generally, alterations are changes of accidental properties of substances
for instance , locomotion: a substance cha
a theory of ontology attempts to answer the question WHAT IS THERE?
a theory of predication attempts to answer the question what is it to say something about
The ten categories:
Who can teach virtue?
Anytus proposes Athenian Gentlemen. Socrates rejects this by referring to a number of notable
examples who failed to teach virtue to their children. one might think that it is teachable even if
these people couldnt teach it-but then
Form: a universal; "justice itself"
Plato has a realist theory of universals
Distinctive beliefs about forms:
they are grasped by reason, not by the senses
they are eternal and unchanging
they are 'separate' they do not depend on their instances for th
Recap on Mill's Hedonism
intrinsic/non-instrumental value: a thing or state of affairs possesses intrinsic value just in
case its value derives from itself. Something is intrinsically valuable when it is worth
desiring for its own sake. END.
Moral objectivism, moral absolutism, cultural relativism
Moral objectivism or moderate moral realism is the position that certain acts are
objectively right or wrong, independent of human opinion.
The moral codes may stem from reason, from the divine, or
The Greats: Coursework
What does Socrates in the Meno mean by
the claim that no one desires bad things? Is it
STEYN VAN DER MERWE S1347949
Intuitively, it would seem that at some point in the maze of decisions that is our exist
Recap on A.J. Ayer's A critique of ethics
1) What is the objection in the first and second paragraph? What is Ayer's answer to the objection?
- Objection : that ethical propositions are synthetic but not empirical. Ethical propositions are not
1)What is a norm? (cf title)
Origin of the word: "standard, pattern, model", from Latin norma "carpenter's square, rule,pattern.
Normative ethics: Act-centered moral theories: It specifies what a right action is. It Focuses on
1)What type of contract is it?
-It is a hypothetical social contract (cf JJ Rousseau)
-The original position is a hypothetical situation, not some pre-civilized period of the history of
mankind. There is no contract for mutual advantage (like i
Recap on What is wrong with slavery? By R.M. Hare
Hare's 'general motive': 'to substitute for intuitions some more solid basis for argument'.
The 'intuitions' that Hare is targeting turn out to be the intuitions that underpin our notion of
human rights ('
Those things that are most fundamental to existence. Can be primary or secondary; primary are individual objects that can be contrasted with everything else because they are not predicable, secondary are predicables -- can be "said of" objects or "in" objects.definition
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