3. Evaluating self: self-esteem!
Self-esteem is our overall positive or negative evaluation of self.!
Taylor & Brown (1988) show that people maintain positive self-esteem by!
- overestimating their good points,!
- overestimating control over events,!
5. How do I present my self to others?
We construct, modify and express who we are in front of others
Goffman (1959), in Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, viewed people as actors on a
stage, playing roles and managing others impressions of us.
The Self in the Social World!
1. Who am I?!
Brewer & Gardner (1996) distinguished three forms of self.!
1 individual (or personal) self: traits, feelings, beliefs, ideas about self!
2 collective (or social) self: social identities relating to group memb
Has our understanding of altruism been constrained by the
research focus on bystander apathy?
Ever since Kitty Genoveses murder in the 1964, psychologists have maintained a great
interest in bystander apathy. However, arguably other areas of altruism have