228. The absolute age of an object indicates how old it is in years.
229. The principle of superposition assumes that younger layers of rock lie above older
230. Radiocarbon dating is a form of radiometric d
58. Referring to Table 13.1, from what does coal form?
A) precipitated calcium carbonate
C) peat soils
D) silt and clay
59. Which geographic setting is least likely to be a place where sedimentary rocks form?
A) estuaries and lakes
B) river flo
73. Organisms that are pelagic _.
A) occupy high trophic levels
B) live in coastal areas
C) live in the open sea
D) reproduce quickly
74. The shark caf is probably a place where sharks _.
C) avoid predation
D) get their bearings using Eart
The relationship betw
148. Manicouagan Crater in Qubec, Canada, is about _ kilometers in diameter.
149. Which statement does not describe the Willamette meteorite that was found in Oregon?
A) It is the largest meteorite ever found in the United State
170. Reading the geologic time table in this figure, which era are we currently in?
171. According to the figure, in what epoch does Homo sapiens develop?
A) the Holocene
B) the Pleistocene
C) the Plioce
Use the following to answer questions 31-36:
31. Which lettered location on the map shows the warmest water?
32. Which lettered location on the map shows the transition between tropical and polar
33. Which l
Use the following to answer question 215:
215. According to the map, most of the lowering of the water table level in the Ogallala
Aquifer has occurred in the _ portion(s) of the aquifer.
C) northeastern and central
171. In the figure, blue and green-gray soils indicate _.
A) high organic content
B) strong weathering
C) persistent high water tables
D) heavy leaching of iron
Use the following to answer questions 172-180:
172. According to the figure, soils that form i
45. There are about _ known species of coral.
46. Which statement is not true of most warm-water, reef-building corals?
A) They are obligate mutualists with algae.
B) They are tolerant of low salinity levels.
C) They require
Use the following to answer questions 35-37:
35. Referring to the image, Hawai'i has formed in what type of melting environment?
A) mid-ocean ridges
B) continental rift valleys
C) hot spots
D) subduction zones
36. Referring to the image, eastern Africa is
Use the following to answer question 197:
197. On the map, which region shows the greatest moisture deficits in January 2014?
A) the Pacific Northwest
B) the interior western states
C) the Midwest
D) the East Coast
Use the following to answer que
Use the following to answer questions 211-214:
211. According to the figure, a category 3 hurricane is approximately equal to what
212. According to the figure, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was approx
128. _ are small, cone-shaped volcanoes consisting of pyroclasts that settle at the
angle of repose.
B) Shield volcanoes
C) Cinder cones
129. A(n) _ volcano is one that has erupted in historic times and is likely to erupt
109. Seagrass meadows are composed of true grasses that have evolved to live submerged in
salt water in coastal areas.
110. Estuaries occur only at the mouths of rivers where fresh and salt water mix and there is
a tidal influence.
44. The Canadian Shield is about _ years old.
A) 570 million
B) 1 billion
C) 2 billion
D) 4 billion
45. A _ is a long chain of volcanoes formed on the margin of a continent where
oceanic crust is subducting beneath continental crust.
A) Wadati-Benioff zon
85. What is fracking fluid?
A) water that naturally occurs at a well
B) water that is injected into a well by fracking operations
C) oil that is extracted from a well that is fracked
D) the toxic chemicals that are added to water
86. The earliest stone to
242. Clay has greater permeability than sand.
243. Clay has high porosity and low permeability.
244. Sand has high porosity and high permeability.
245. Aquifers form mostly in porous sediments and rocks.
181. As shown in the figure, rift zones typically have _ earthquakes.
182. According to the figure, divergent plate zones typically have _ earthquakes.
198. Most of the heat loss from Earth's interior occurs where?
A) beneath the continents
B) beneath mountains
C) beneath valleys
D) at plate boundaries
Use the following to answer questions 199-203:
199. Which layer in the figure shown is liquid?
A) the l
195. Talus accumulates at the base of cliffs in piles called _.
A) talus cones
D) rockfall chutes
196. Which is a form of weathering?
197. Which is a form of mass movement?
23. _ occurs when the weight of sinking oceanic lithosphere accelerates plate
A) Mantle drag
B) Ridge push
C) Slab pull
D) Lateral force
24. If the absolute velocity of two plates is 5 centimeters per year and both are moving away
from each other,
168. Cave formations that grow from the ceiling downward are called _.
C) limestone columns
D) soda straws
169. Cave formations that grow from the floor upward are called _.
C) limestone columns
158. In 79 CE people living near Mount Vesuvius were killed by what?
A) a lahar
B) volcanic ash
C) a pyroclastic flow
159. Today, about how many people live dangerously close to Mount Vesuvius?
4. On average, the oceans are _ kilometers deep.
5. A _ is a long body of deep water that usually forms an inlet or connects two
6. A _ is mostly enclosed by land like a bay, but it is much large
246. Each earthquake is assigned only one earthquake magnitude number.
247. Collapsing structures are the main threat to people created by earthquakes.
248. Scientists have successfully predicted some earthquakes.
10. More than 27 percent of Earth's crust is made up of _ molecules.
11. More than 46 percent of Earth's crust is composed of _ atoms.
12. _ is/are the broken and unconsolid
141. Rocks falling from a cliff and breaking apart are an example of what?
A) chemical weathering
B) a landslide
C) a debris flow
D) physical weathering
142. Freeze-thaw cycles result in _.
A) biophysical weathering
B) frost wedging
C) root wedging
71. Which tectonic environment does not have volcanically active mountains?
A) mid-ocean ridge
B) rift valley
C) subduction zones
Use the following to answer questions 72-75:
72. Referring to the figure, the Himalayas were formed through whic
102. The oceanic crust is generally older than the continental crust.
103. Rift valleys are often volcanically active.
104. Continental crust subducts.
105. The oldest portions of continental crust are ca