TEST 2 ANSWER KEY
Every time Luis gives his dog a treat, he shakes the box of treats first. His dog now reacts
excitedly to the sound of the box of treats being shaken, even before Luis takes out a
treat. In this situation, the treat is the a) uncondit
STUDENT NUMBER _
MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. Mark your
choices BOTH by circling the answer in your question booklet AND by filling in the appropriate
bubble on your sca
Biological Basis of Traits Individual differences in introversion extraversion reflect individual
differences in neurophysicaloogical functioning of the brains cortex.
Introverts are more arousable; experience more cortical arousal from events
in the wor
Sigmund Freud Notes
First comprehensive personality theory (developed over 47 years ago)
Purpose: The theory describes how personality develops through
This theory is based on two things:
His own thoughts
Women that w
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
Born in 1902.
Suffered from identify issues as a child and teenager.
He was born as Erik Abrahamsen, and was raised as Erik Homburger.
He was Danish but was raised Jewish living in Germany.
Social learning approach: Albert Bandura
-The only Canadian theorists
View of man underlying theory
-He views man as agents who have some control over their own behaviour.
We have free will and control over how we are g
Cognitive approach of personality
-Kelly used his clinical work to formulate the theory
He found that clinicians/scientists do not differ from the clients they treat in the way
the make sense of the world
View of man/woman
-Individuals are capable
Humanistic approach: Abraham Maslow
-Happy people and believe that positive psychology is important
-Believes that the human mind is self-aware and that the past is gone, future isnt here yet and
FOCUS ON PRESENT
-Reality is not that important to these pe
Humanistic Approach: Carl Rogers
Background about Carl Rogers
Born near Chicago
Parents enforced strict religious views and behaviours
Felt that his parents favoured one of his older brothers
Views are very similar to Maslows
1. Underlying View
Karen Horneys Theory of Personality Development:
A socially-oriented psychoanalytic theory
Background: Karen Horney (18851952)
Born in Germany
Had an older brother
Trained a physician specializing in psychiatry
Trained in psychoanalysis
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
-Infancy & Toddlerhood
Born in 1902.
Suffered from identify issues as a child and te
Chapter 11: Cognitive George Kelly; Personality Construct Theory
The Cognitive Movement in Psychology
Personal construct theory: Kellys description of personality in terms of cognitive
processes: We are capable of interpreting behaviours and events and of
Chapter 13: Social-Learning Approach Albert Bandura; Modeling Theory
Observational Learning: Learning new responses by observing the behaviour of other
Vicarious Reinforcement: Learning or strengthening a behaviour by observing that
behaviour of ot
Chapter 12: Behavioural Approach B.F. Skinner; Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement: The Basis of Behaviour
-2 kinds of behaviour.
1. Respondent Behaviour: Responses made to or elicited by specific environmental
A reflexive behaviour such as a knee
PSY505 FINAL NOTES
3 short answers
Dec 11 @ 3pm in GYM (upper gym in KHW) 2.5
Allport (chapter 7 and lecture)
Cattell, Eysenck and McCrae & Costa (just lecture, no book)
Maslow (Chapter 9 and lecture)
Rogers (Chapter 10 and le
SELF-CONTROL & DELAY OF GRATIFICATION Children found to be high and low in delay of gratification were exposed to models of the
o Live-model condition: each child observed an adult model who chose between
immediate reward & more valued o
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE Theories also differed in complexity of structural organization
Behaviorisms response vs. social-cognitivists standards, goals, beliefs vs.
psychoanalytic theorys id, ego, superego.
PROCESS Diversity in motivational models
Less sensitive to pain
Dont fatigue as easily
Excitement enhances their performance
Dont do as well in school, more likely to withdraw
Prefer jobs working with others
Seek novelty (new activities), get bored easily
Enjoy sexual or aggres
Factor Analysis Continued Factors are merely mathematical (not psychological).
Psychologists attach labels to the factors which represent primary
psychological content in the test items that correlate with one another.
e.g., Sociability (what is it made
Genetics & Individual Differences
Genetics contribute strongly to personality and individual differences.
o E.g., Biological differences contribute to psychological differences in
peoples tendencies to experience fearful, inhibited behaviour.
o E.g., tem
Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind and Behaviorism
Gilbert Ryle has sometimes been called a behaviorist. He is not, but his account of
our" mental" concepts shares most of the behaviorist's doctrines minus the
reductionism (see below). Here is a brief summ
Behaviorism: There are two sorts of behaviorism. One, more associated
with psychology, is sometimes called "methodological behaviorism" and
is associated with thinkers such as BF Skinner. These behaviorists
advocate that psychology study only behavior and
Gordon Allport (and friends) Allport & Odbert: defined traits as generalized and personalized determining
Different from aspects of personality that are temporary, brief, &
caused by external circumstances.
Chaplin, John, and Goldberg (1988)
Reliability Extent to which observations can be replicated.
Take test today and next week, results shouldnt different significantly.
What else might explain different responses?
o Mood, illnesses, fight with significant others, stress
o Lack of standard
View of Human Nature TRAITS: consistent patterns in the way individuals behave, feel, and think.
Kind person acts kindly over time & across situations & is at least as kind as
the average person we know.
Consistency: Refers to enduring, dispositional qu
What makes a successful CEO? Difference between senior executives who make it to chief executive officer & those who
dont is minimal.
Both groups are talented and motivated.
Those who dont make it are found to be: insensitive to others, untrustworthy, c
Phenomenological Approach Focuses on how individuals experience the world in which they live.
Based on profound respect for human beings and the subjective
Goal was not to classify client within a scientific taxonomy or to identify
APPLICABILITY TO SOCIAL CHANGE 1993-1999: citizens of Tanazia were able to hear a radio soap opera entitled
Twende na Wakati.
o Designed to entertain and to educate about HIV/AIDS risk behaviors.
o Before the program began, the nations citizens were relat
Carl Rogers Raised in strict religious home.
Developed concern with moral/ethical matters.
Learned respect for the methods of science.
Considered theology but drawn to psychology.
Tried to integrate religious and science, intuition with objectivity, c
MISCHEL & SHODA (2008) Suggested saw integrative view in their proposal for a unified theory of personality.
A unified theory would recognize the existence of:
o Stable dispositions due to biological factors and cognitive structures (trait and