Evaluating Web Information
Is the site associated with a major educational institution or research organization?
A site sponsored by a single individual or organization with a clear bias should be
viewed with skepticism.
Is information provided on the p
Is Deception a Major Ethical Problem in Psychological Research?
Many psychologists, such as Broder, believe the problem of deception has been
exaggerated and these instances of elaborate deception are rare.
There is actually evidence that college studen
Informed Consent Form
Participants usually provided with an informed consent form containing the information
needed to make their decision.
Typically, it is printed for the participant to read and sign; it is important that they
understand the informati
Assessment of Risks and Benefits
The principle of benefice refers to the need for research to maximize benefits and
minimize any possible harmful effects of participation.
Risk-benefit analysis we must calculate potential risks and benefits that are lik
Justice and the Selection of Participants
The principle of justice addresses the issue of fairness in receiving the benefits of
research as well as bearing the burdens of accepting risks (ie history contains
many examples of medical research in which par
Relationships Between Variables
The relationship between two variables is the general way in which the different values of
one variable are associated with the different values of another variable. That is, do the
levels of two variables vary systematica
The most common measurement strategy is to ask people to tell you about
Rate your overall happiness
You can also directly observe behaviours
How many mistakes did someone make
Psychological and neurological responses can be measured as well.
Ethical and Practical Considerations
Sometimes the experimental method is not feasible because it would be unethical
or impractical (ie childrearing practices would be impractical and unethical one
of many problems is the inability to randomize parents t
The most obvious variable that is difficult to keep constant is the difference in
characteristics of participants.
If participants in the different groups are initially different, a confounding variable may
Nonexperimental Method aka correlational method
Supposed researcher wanted to study the effects of exercise on anxiety.
First, both variables would be operationally defined.
The important point to remember is that in the nonexperimental method both var