Chemistry Final Exam Notes
Chapter 4: Forces Between Particles
For metals such as copper, the atoms in the lattice are held in place by metallic
bonds. In metals, the valence electrons are able to move freely about the lattice
with the metallic bonds aris
Chemical equations are a convenient way to represent chemical reactions. Chemical equations are
written in terms of reactants and products.
A symbol is written in parentheses to the right of each reactant an
and the Periodic Law
This is a statement about the behavior of the elements when they are arranged in a specific
In its present form, the statement is:
A periodic table is a tabular arrangement of th
Spontaneous processes are processes that take place naturally with no apparent cause or stimulus.
Spontaneity: Natures Arrow
Some processes or reactions proceed in only one direction.
Gasoline reacts spontaneously with oxygen to form
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
All three states of matter have certain properties that help distinguish between the states. Four
of these properties are density, shape, compressibility, and thermal expansion.
Density is equal to the mass of a samp
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances in which the components are
present as atoms, molecules, or ions.
Particles in liquid solutions are:
too small to reflect light, thus solutions are transparent (clear).
in constant mo
ARRHENIUS ACIDS & BASES
An Arrhenius acid is any substance that provides hydrogen ions, H +, when dissolved in water.
An Arrhenius base is any substance that provides hydroxide ions, OH-, when dissolved in water.
MATTER & MASS
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.
Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object.
Mass is independent of the location of an object.
An object on the earth has the same mass as the same object on the moon.
Atoms and Molecules
SYMBOLS & FORMULAS
A unique symbol is used to represent each element.
Formulas are used to represent compounds.
A symbol is assigned to each element. The symbol is based on the name of the element
What makes a chemical process spontaneous?
Entropy & the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Gibbs Free Energy
Relation to Equilibrium Constants
Acids and Bases: Core
Structure and function
Strengths of acids and bases
pH, pOH, pKw
Acids increase the concentration of H3O+ in
e.g. HClO4 (aq) +
Energy Changes In Chemical Reactions
State functions and path functions
Internal energy, heat, work and all that
Thermochemistry: Study of changes in
The Gaseous State
Properties of Gases
Ideal Gas Law
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Stuff to know
Some Terms To Memorize
Standard temperature and pressure (STP):
0C (273.15 K) and 1 atm
Find conc. of a substance (analyte) in a sample
that may contain other substances as well
Add enough reagent (titrant) of known
(standardised) conc. to react completely with
analyte (no excess)
Another compound (indic
Using the information in chemical equations
Part I: Basic Skills
Expressing mass in chemistry
Concept of the mole
Empirical formula (simplest formula)
Atomic mass %
Forces Between Particles
NOBLE GAS CONFIGURATIONS
An electronic configuration that is characterized by two electrons in the valence shell of helium and eight
electrons in the valence shell of all other group VIII A noble gases.