Where does the wind blow?
-10 or more km off shore (best)
-Land near a shoreline
-Anywhere the prevailing winds are strong
Wind turbines need average sustained winds speeds of at least 16km/h. Large
scale (400-800 MW) wind farms are proposed off o
Humanity effects on the atmosphere part 3 ozone depletion
What is UV radiation?
A small amount of the energy we receive from the sun is at wavelength between 200 and 400nm,
and carries enough energy to damage molecule.
Can damage DNA in skin
Global Average Solar Insolation (1991-1993)
Dark circles: surface area that would have to be covered with 8% efficient photovoltaic cells to
supply the worlds primary energy.
Concerns Environment & Technical
No CO2 emissions from operation of a so
Energy IV - Renewable Sources
Water, Wind & Light
Electricity from flowing water (Hydro):
Kinetic energy of moving water is easily harnessed by a turbine (mature
technology: 80% + efficiency.)
Power output depends on speed of water through the turbine. Ne
Hypothesis: Seeds exposed to an excessive amount of radiation yield abnormal plants.
This experiment is to show radiation can affect the process of plant growth. Radiation is the
energy that comes from naturally occurring radioactive materia
Population forecasts are based on a logistic model and assumption about future fertility rates and
economic development. Most models yield a similar picture.
Most of the growth is expected in the developing world, while develo
Major man made primary air pollutants
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Colourless odourless and poisonous gas
Product of incomplete combustion (when there inst enough air) especially in motor vehicles
2C+ 2O2.>2CO2 (complete)
Nitric oxide (NO)
-occurs when excessive amounts of one or more nutrients are introduced into a body of water
1. Organic matter discharges (e.g. raw sewage, manure)
-action of decomposers releases nutrients
-decomposer population increases dramatically
Uses an electric motor only to fuel combustion
Many early automobiles were electric
Technological obstacle: energy density of current chemical batteries limits the travel distance
available per charge.
Recent lithium-ion batteries
The Human Population Part 1 Population Dynamics
Why is Population an Environmental Issue?
Environmental problems have their origin in two factors:
o The demands placed on the environment per capita (per person);
o The total number of people on Earth
Fossil fuels II
Fossil Fuels II
Extraction (removal from the ground):
Damage to/destruction of ecosystems (roads, strip-mining ect.)
Surface pollution ( tailing,mud)
Transport to end
Energy II Non-renewable sources: Fossil Fuels ,
A key resource:
Fossil fuels account for over 80% of the worlds primary energy supply.
Developing countries will continue to increase their fossil fuel consumption for at least a
few more decades.
Coal and N
Energy I The Big Picture
How much energy does humanity consume?
488 quad = 515 EJ (515 x 10 to the power of 18 J) per year excluding food!
1 quad = 193 TWh (equivalent to 25M tons of crude oil)
Industry and transport account for over half
Life II Diversity and Evolution Continued
o When the change in a trait is minor, then the process is called microevolution.
o Usually in a population most individuals exhibit one particular allele of a trait as a
result of environmental pre
Agriculture Part 1- Soils and Crops
Eating to Live:
Like all other living organisms, humans require food to survive.
Grains, fruits, vegetables
The human body needs roughly 6 to 8 thousands KJ a day of energy just to maintain itself.