Chapter 8
Flexure
The lithosphere behaves as a thin elastic plate in geological time scales. The elasticity of
the lithosphere aects the uplift of mountain ranges and the subsidence of sedimentary
basins to leave geological records of the behavior. We are
Chapter 1
Finite Strain
Tectonics is the natural processes that deform the shallow solid part of rocky or icy
bodies of the Solar System. The deformation proceeds with the movements of rock or
ice masses. In this chapter, we will study how to describe the
Appendix D
Answers to Selected Problems
1.2 Substituting x = F into x x = 1, we have (F ) (F ) = FT F = 1. Therefore,
the reciprocal ellipsoid is represented by FT F = C = U2 (Eq. (1.19). It is explained in Section
C.5 that the principal radii of the elli
Chapter 12
Dynamics of the Lithosphere
In this chapter we study how the lithosphere deforms in response to external forces, and
how factors such as the thermal regime and lithology aect the deformation. First, we
study several factors controlling the stre
Appendix C
Basic Equations
This appendix introduces mathematical tools that are needed to understand the topics in
this book.
C.1
Vectors
A vector has both magnitude and direction. Vectors are used to represent directional data such as
force and velocity.
Chapter 4
Principal Stresses
Anisotropic stress causes tectonic deformations. Tectonic stress is dened in
an early part of this chapter, and natural examples of tectonic stresses are also
presented.
4.1
Principal stresses and principal stress axes
Because
Appendix B
Stress Inversion
This appendix supplements Chapter 11, and introduces a new formulation of the stress inversion, a
method for determining the stress from fault-slip data or from seismic focal mechanisms [203, 269].
Reduced stress tensor S is de
Appendix A
List of Symbols
0
A
B
B
C
C
D
D
dc
D/Dt
E
E
EE , Ee
e
e(i)
F
F (S)
G
G
g
I
J
K
L
Mg
M
zero vector
Almansis nite strain tensor
left Cauchy-Green tensor
buoyancy coecient (= g)
right Cauchy-Green tensor
degree of compensation
stretching tensor
Chapter 9
Fluid
Rocks behave like uids at depths in geologic timescales. In this chapter, basic equations for a simple uid are introduced. Then equations are used to consider vertical
movements. Linear stability analysis of the motions of the uid is appli
Chapter 6
Faulting and Brittle Strength
In this chapter, faulting is rstly considered as brittle failure. It is shown that tectonic
stress is limited in its magnitude by the brittle strength of faults in the shallow levels in
the lithosphere.
6.1
Primary
Chapter 10
Plasticity
Fluids with a non-linear constitutive equation are introduced in this chapter.
They include plastic body, Bingham, and power-law uids. The equations of
plasticity are applied to the deformation of impact craters. Rocks behave as
powe
Chapter 3
Stress, Balance Equations, and
Isostasy
We dene stress to consider forces acting at depths, and derive the equations of mass,
linear momentum, angular momentum, and energy conservation. Very slow tectonic
movements allow us to neglect inertia fo
Chapter 2
Innitesimal Strains and Their
Accumulations
In this chapter we will study innitesimal deformation and the rate of deformation. Most
geologic structures are the integral of innitesimal deformations, so that it is important
to understand how innit
Downloaded from geology.gsapubs.org on December 20, 2012
Geology
Model for the Precambrian evolution of the Avalon terrane in southern New
Brunswick, Canada
R. Damian Nance
Geology 1987;15;753-756
doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<753:MFTPEO>2.0.CO;2
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